RT Journal Article
JF IEEE Annals of the History of Computing
YR 2014
VO 36
IS 4
SP 2
TI Algol Culture and Programming Styles [Guest editor's introduction]
K1 Special issues and sections
K1 Programming
K1 Software engineering
K1 Europe
K1 History
K1 Computer languages
K1 Software for Europe
K1 history of computing
K1 history of software
K1 Algol
K1 programming languages
AB This special issue situates the story of Algol in the larger historiography of software and provide a unique contribution to the history of this important early programming language. The articles in this special issue on Algol are the product of a research project highlighting the role of IT in the development of Europe called Software for Europe (SOFT-EU), which was part of a larger European Science Foundation's Eurocores program called Inventing Europe.
PB IEEE Computer Society, [URL:http://www.computer.org]
SN 1058-6180
LA English
DO 10.1109/MAHC.2014.49
LK http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MAHC.2014.49

RT Journal Article
JF IEEE Annals of the History of Computing
YR 2014
VO 36
IS 4
SP 6
TI Algol in France: From Universal Project to Embedded Culture
K1 Europe
K1 Programming
K1 Software engineering
K1 Computer languages
K1 History
K1 Mathematics
K1 Research and development
K1 Plan Calcul
K1 history of computing
K1 Algol
K1 France
K1 computer science
K1 programming language
K1 learned society
K1 industrial research
K1 Bull
K1 IBM
AB Algol was a high-level programming language, created by American and European mathematicians in the late 1950s. It sparked a wave of debates, projects and counter-projects, and remained lively in academic spheres until the 1970s. This article focuses on Algol, less as a programming language than as a research programme, an object of circulation and translation, and a decisive step in the building of a new scientific community: computer science, or informatique. It provides an analysis of the main French actors involved in the global Algol endeavor--small groups of computer scientists who became interested in this project, appropriated it, and participated in its evolution, either within academic laboratories, R&D departments of computer companies, user organizations, or learned societies. This involves grasping each group with its local, particular rationale, culture, and environment as well as its integration in scientific networks at national and transnational levels.
PB IEEE Computer Society, [URL:http://www.computer.org]
SN 1058-6180
LA English
DO 10.1109/MAHC.2014.50
LK http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MAHC.2014.50

RT Journal Article
JF IEEE Annals of the History of Computing
YR 2014
VO 36
IS 4
SP 26
TI Embracing the Algol Effort in Czechoslovakia
K1 Computer languages
K1 Europe
K1 Automatic programming
K1 History
K1 Program processors
K1 Information processing
K1 Programming
K1 EPOS Algol
K1 history of computing
K1 Algol 60
K1 programming in Czechoslovakia
K1 SAPO computer; EPOS computer
AB In the 1950s, Czechoslovakian computing was more famous for its fault-tolerant computers, SAPO and EPOS, than for developments in automatic programming. However, the Algol effort did not go unnoticed there. It was quite the contrary, even though its appeal to Czechoslovakian computer programmers only became manifest in their work after the publication of the preliminary report on the algorithmic language in 1958. The publication of the full Algol 60 report was well noted and the "Algol craze" spread quickly in Czechoslovakia. This article traces the history of programming methods and techniques in Czechoslovakia until the first Czechoslovakian Algol compiler in the early 1960s.
PB IEEE Computer Society, [URL:http://www.computer.org]
SN 1058-6180
LA English
DO 10.1109/MAHC.2014.51
LK http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MAHC.2014.51

RT Journal Article
JF IEEE Annals of the History of Computing
YR 2014
VO 36
IS 4
SP 38
TI When Switches Became Programs: Programming Languages and Telecommunications, 1965-1980
K1 Computer languages
K1 Europe
K1 Programming
K1 Software engineering
K1 History
K1 Electrochemical devices
K1 Chill
K1 history of computing
K1 history of programming languages
K1 telecommunications switches
K1 programming of telecommunications equipment
K1 standardization
K1 International Telecommunication Union
AB Beginning in the mid-1960s, electromechanical telecommunications switches were increasingly replaced by computer-controlled switches. Production and development of this equipment relied on the construction of its software. This software was shaped by practices, ideas, and ideals appropriated from the computer industry and computer science as much as by concerns and constraints of the telecommunications industry itself.
PB IEEE Computer Society, [URL:http://www.computer.org]
SN 1058-6180
LA English
DO 10.1109/MAHC.2014.64
LK http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MAHC.2014.64

RT Journal Article
JF IEEE Annals of the History of Computing
YR 2014
VO 36
IS 4
SP 51
TI IEEE Computer Society House Advertisement
PB IEEE Computer Society, [URL:http://www.computer.org]
SN 1058-6180
LA English
DO 10.1109/MAHC.2014.55
LK http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MAHC.2014.55

RT Journal Article
JF IEEE Annals of the History of Computing
YR 2014
VO 36
IS 4
SP 52
TI Universality versus Locality: The Amsterdam Style of Algol Implementation
A1 Gerard Alberts,
A1 Edgar G. Daylight,
K1 Programming
K1 History
K1 Europe
K1 Computer languages
K1 Program processors
K1 Software engineering
K1 Friedrich Bauer
K1 history of computing
K1 history of software
K1 Algol
K1 compiler construction
K1 object language
K1 Edsger W. Dijkstra
K1 John Carr
K1 Saul Gorn
K1 Alan Perlis
K1 Heinz Rutishauser
K1 Peter Naur
K1 Aad van Wijngaarden
K1 Jaap Zonneveld
K1 Klaus Samelson
AB During the 1950s, computer programming was a local practice. Programs from one computing center would not work on computers elsewhere. For example, programs written in Munich differed radically in style from programs written in Amsterdam. Similar problems were also encountered in the United States, leading American computer programmers in 1954 to combine the ideal of a machine-independent programming tool with the metaphor of language. European researchers eagerly embraced this idea and subsequently collaborated with their American colleagues in developing such a language, called Algol. Although it was meant to be universal in terms of machine-independence, in order to be a working technology, Algol by necessity had to be implemented on a specific type of machine. As a result, the aspired universal Algol language would be bound to a compiler, or translator, which depended on the specificities of the underlying machine. Local machinery, traditions of programming, and compilers would in turn give Algol a local appearance and, in more than one case, led to the decision of working with a restricted version of the language. Thus, in practice, Algol came with local dialects. This article elaborates on the tension between universality and locality by contrasting the Amsterdam and Munich styles of programming. In addition to the famous controversy on recursive procedures, it also highlights Edsger Dijkstra's concept of a machine-independent object language.
PB IEEE Computer Society, [URL:http://www.computer.org]
SN 1058-6180
LA English
DO 10.1109/MAHC.2014.61
LK http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MAHC.2014.61

RT Journal Article
JF IEEE Annals of the History of Computing
YR 2014
VO 36
IS 4
SP 64
TI Hopper and Dijkstra: Crisis, Revolution, and the Future of Programming
K1 Programming profession
K1 Computer languages
K1 Software engineering
K1 Rhetoric
K1 History
K1 Edsger Dijkstra
K1 history of computing
K1 history of software engineering
K1 programming paradigms
K1 discourse of computer programming
K1 Grace Hopper
AB In the late 1960s, tensions were erupting in corporate and academic computing cultures in the United States and abroad with competing views about the state of computer programming and possible future implications. A discourse of "software crisis" was ignited in 1968 when NATO hosted a conference on the topic of software engineering. The author examines the rhetoric of crisis, revolution, and promise in computer programming cultures by viewing it through the lens of two dissimilar leaders, Grace Hopper and Edsger Dijkstra, who articulated views through discourses about computer programming that reveal multiple ideals and tensions. As representatives and exemplars of different communities, they emphasized pragmatic versus theoretical stances, respectively. The historical context they operated in also highlights the cultural complexities of gender in computer programming, a durable phenomenon that continues today.
PB IEEE Computer Society, [URL:http://www.computer.org]
SN 1058-6180
LA English
DO 10.1109/MAHC.2014.54
LK http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MAHC.2014.54

RT Journal Article
JF IEEE Annals of the History of Computing
YR 2014
VO 36
IS 4
SP 74
TI Video Synthesizers: From Analog Computing to Digital Art
K1 Synthesizers
K1 TV
K1 Digital art
K1 Art
K1 Cameras
K1 Video recording
K1 Image color analysis
K1 Audio systems
K1 Multimedia communication
K1 Computer graphics
K1 audio synthesizers
K1 history of computing
K1 multimedia information systems
K1 computer graphics
K1 computer applications
K1 video synthesizers
AB In the late 1960s, artists and engineers began building increasingly sophisticated video synthesizers, machines that produced abstract or distorted images by electronically manipulating either a video signal or the cathode ray tube on which it was displayed. This article explores how experimental videographers modeled video synthesizers on audio synthesizers, conceptualized them as analog computers, and starting in 1973, interfaced them with digital minicomputers. They used digital computers first as programmable controllers for complex analog synthesizers and then as sources of digital imagery themselves, integrating video and computer graphics in hybrid analog/digital systems.
PB IEEE Computer Society, [URL:http://www.computer.org]
SN 1058-6180
LA English
DO 10.1109/MAHC.2014.62
LK http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MAHC.2014.62

RT Journal Article
JF IEEE Annals of the History of Computing
YR 2014
VO 36
IS 4
SP 87
TI Reviews [3 books reviewed]
K1 Book reviews
K1 Computers
K1 History
K1 Computer languages
K1 Programming
K1 the history of ballistic missile guidance
K1 history of computing
K1 Haliotis
K1 missile defense software
AB The following books are reviewed: Computer: A History of the Information Machine (Campbell-Kelly, M. et al; 2013); Arguments that Count: Physics, Computing, and Missile Defense, 1949-2012 (Slayton, R.; 2013); and Centre de Calcul Coelacanthe, 1963-1970 (Kaiser, C.; 2011).
PB IEEE Computer Society, [URL:http://www.computer.org]
SN 1058-6180
LA English
DO 10.1109/MAHC.2014.58
LK http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MAHC.2014.58

RT Journal Article
JF IEEE Annals of the History of Computing
YR 2014
VO 36
IS 4
SP 92
TI Events and SightingsK1 Tokyo University of Science
K1 history of computing
K1 Project MAC
K1 Multics operating system
K1 Norbert Wiener
K1 Differential Analyzer

AB This Events & Sightings installment covers a range of recent events focusing on the history of computing.
PB IEEE Computer Society, [URL:http://www.computer.org]
SN 1058-6180
LA English
DO 10.1109/MAHC.2014.52
LK http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MAHC.2014.52

RT Journal Article
JF IEEE Annals of the History of Computing
YR 2014
VO 36
IS 4
SP 97
TI My Corner of the Time-Sharing Innovation World
K1 Computer technology
K1 Time sharing computer systems
K1 Software development
K1 Programming
K1 Portable document format
K1 time-sharing systems
K1 history of computing
K1 Berkeley Computer Corporation
K1 Norsk Data
K1 Rolf Skår
K1 CERN
AB The author reflects on his career in the computing world, specifically his work in early time-sharing system development, and the almost accidental steps that put him in touch with some of the technical giants of the industry in Berkeley and then led to his years at Norsk Data in Norway. He explains how his contribution to ND with regard to operating system technology contributed significantly to the company's astonishing growth.
PB IEEE Computer Society, [URL:http://www.computer.org]
SN 1058-6180
LA English
DO 10.1109/MAHC.2014.57
LK http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MAHC.2014.57

RT Journal Article
JF IEEE Annals of the History of Computing
YR 2014
VO 36
IS 4
SP 104
TI Was Algol 60 the First Algorithmic Language?
A1 Helena Durnova,
A1 Gerard Alberts,
K1 Programming
K1 Computer languages
K1 Algorithm design and analysis
K1 Mathematics
K1 Hermann Bottenbruch
K1 history of computing
K1 history of software programming
K1 Algol
K1 IAL
K1 Peter Naur
K1 Algol Bulletin
AB The phrase "algorithmic language" is conspicuously associated with Algol, the acronym first used to name the programming language Algol 60, which originated through a cooperation between the ACM and German Association for Applied Mathematics and Mechanics (GAMM) groups of programming specialists. In the 1920s computing real things, solving messy equations, came to be called practical mathematics or numerical analysis, and the techniques to do so were called procedures, schemes, or Verfahren (in German). In the 1950s, however, the venerable notion of an "algorithm" allowed computer users, who were reflecting on developing computing procedures and transferring these to automatic machinery, describe what they thought they were "actually" doing. This article traces the use of the terms "algebraic" to "algorithmic" during the development of the programming language Algol.
PB IEEE Computer Society, [URL:http://www.computer.org]
SN 1058-6180
LA English
DO 10.1109/MAHC.2014.63
LK http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MAHC.2014.63

RT Journal Article
JF IEEE Annals of the History of Computing
YR 2014
VO 36
IS 4
SP c2
TI Table of Contents
PB IEEE Computer Society, [URL:http://www.computer.org]
SN 1058-6180
LA English
DO 10.1109/MAHC.2014.59
LK http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MAHC.2014.59

RT Journal Article
JF IEEE Annals of the History of Computing
YR 2014
VO 36
IS 4
SP c3
TI IEEE was Here House Advertisement
PB IEEE Computer Society, [URL:http://www.computer.org]
SN 1058-6180
LA English
DO 10.1109/MAHC.2014.56
LK http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MAHC.2014.56

RT Journal Article
JF IEEE Annals of the History of Computing
YR 2014
VO 36
IS 4
SP c4
TI Take the CS Library wherever you go! House Advertisement
PB IEEE Computer Society, [URL:http://www.computer.org]
SN 1058-6180
LA English
DO 10.1109/MAHC.2014.60
LK http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MAHC.2014.60