RT Journal Article
JF Computer
YR 2017
VO 50
IS 9
SP 1
TI Table of Contents
PB IEEE Computer Society, [URL:http://www.computer.org]
SN 0018-9162
LA English
DO 10.1109/MC.2017.3571046
LK http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MC.2017.3571046

RT Journal Article
JF Computer
YR 2017
VO 50
IS 9
SP 3
TI Masthead
PB IEEE Computer Society, [URL:http://www.computer.org]
SN 0018-9162
LA English
DO 10.1109/MC.2017.3571065
LK http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MC.2017.3571065

RT Journal Article
JF Computer
YR 2017
VO 50
IS 9
SP 4
TI Computer Highlights Society MagazinesK1 IEEE Computer Society
K1 IEEE CS

AB A summary of articles recently published in IEEE Computer Society magazines.
PB IEEE Computer Society, [URL:http://www.computer.org]
SN 0018-9162
LA English
DO 10.1109/MC.2017.3571040
LK http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MC.2017.3571040

RT Journal Article
JF Computer
YR 2017
VO 50
IS 9
SP 8
TI Let Us Entertain You
A1 undefined,
A1 undefined,
A1 undefined,
A1 undefined, K1 Computing: The Next 50 Years
K1 history of computing
K1 videogames
K1 gaming
K1 AI
K1 augmented reality
K1 AR
K1 virtual reality
K1 VR
K1 digital technology
K1 entertainment technology

AB Entertainment industries propel technologies that engage our seven senses and blur the barriers of work and play.
PB IEEE Computer Society, [URL:http://www.computer.org]
SN 0018-9162
LA English
DO 10.1109/MC.2017.3571050
LK http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MC.2017.3571050

RT Journal Article
JF Computer
YR 2017
VO 50
IS 9
SP 10
TI Revisiting the Impact of the Ada Programming Language
A1 undefined,
A1 undefined,
A1 undefined,
A1 undefined, K1 From the Archives: Computers Legacy
K1 history of computing
K1 Ada
K1 programming language
K1 Department of Defense
K1 DoD
K1 common programming language
K1 Ada Lovelace
K1 software

AB This installment of From the Archives reflects on a 1978 Computer article and the impact of the US Department of Defense’s effort to standardize software development projects around a single programming language.
PB IEEE Computer Society, [URL:http://www.computer.org]
SN 0018-9162
LA English
DO 10.1109/MC.2017.3571060
LK http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MC.2017.3571060

RT Journal Article
JF Computer
YR 2017
VO 50
IS 9
SP 12
TI 50 & 25 Years AgoK1 history of computing
K1 50 & 25 Years Ago

AB A summary of articles published in Computer 50 and 25 years ago.
PB IEEE Computer Society, [URL:http://www.computer.org]
SN 0018-9162
LA English
DO 10.1109/MC.2017.3571043
LK http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MC.2017.3571043

RT Journal Article
JF Computer
YR 2017
VO 50
IS 9
SP 14
TI Blockchain Technology in Finance
A1 Philip Treleaven,
A1 Richard Gendal Brown,
A1 Danny Yang,
A1 undefined,
A1 undefined,
A1 undefined,
A1 undefined, K1 blockchain
K1 financial technology
K1 Bitcoin
K1 cryptocurrency
K1 distributed-ledger technology
K1 DLT
K1 cryptography
K1 smart contract

AB The banking and financial-services industry has taken notice of blockchain technology’s many advantages. This special issue explores its unlikely origins, tremendous impact, implementation challenges, and enormous potential. The web extra at https://youtu.be/wPFxKnlu1bA features R3’s Tim Swanson as he interviews global experts on blockchain technology for finance.
PB IEEE Computer Society, [URL:http://www.computer.org]
SN 0018-9162
LA English
DO 10.1109/MC.2017.3571047
LK http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MC.2017.3571047

RT Journal Article
JF Computer
YR 2017
VO 50
IS 9
SP 18
TI Blockchain Technologies: The Foreseeable Impact on Society and Industry
A1 Tomaso Aste,
A1 Paolo Tasca,
A1 Tiziana Di Matteo,
A1 undefined,
A1 undefined,
A1 undefined,
A1 undefined,
K1 Bitcoin
K1 Peer-to-peer computing
K1 Biological system modeling
K1 Contracts
K1 Industries
K1 blockchain
K1 financial technology
K1 Bitcoin
K1 cryptocurrency
K1 decentralized organization
K1 decentralized autonomous organization
K1 DAO
K1 proof of work
K1 hashing
AB The authors describe blockchain’s fundamental concepts, provide perspectives on its challenges and opportunities, and trace its origins from the Bitcoin digital cash system to recent applications.
PB IEEE Computer Society, [URL:http://www.computer.org]
SN 0018-9162
LA English
DO 10.1109/MC.2017.3571064
LK http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MC.2017.3571064

RT Journal Article
JF Computer
YR 2017
VO 50
IS 9
SP 29
TI A Distributed-Ledger Consortium Model for Collaborative Innovation
A1 Chris Khan,
A1 Antony Lewis,
A1 Emily Rutland,
A1 Clemens Wan,
A1 Kevin Rutter,
A1 Clark Thompson,
A1 undefined,
A1 undefined,
A1 undefined,
A1 undefined,
K1 Industries
K1 Complexity theory
K1 Risk management
K1 Law
K1 Finance
K1 Collaboration
K1 blockchain
K1 financial technology
K1 Bitcoin
K1 distributed-ledger technology
K1 DLT
K1 R3
K1 smart contract
K1 Corda
K1 return on equity
K1 ROE
AB R3 has built a global consortium to focus on the application of distributed-ledger technology (DLT), which can help banks combat low return on equity and alleviate pressure on their operating costs. The authors explain the conditions that led to interest in DLT and introduce Corda, R3’s shared ledger for recording and managing financial agreements.
PB IEEE Computer Society, [URL:http://www.computer.org]
SN 0018-9162
LA English
DO 10.1109/MC.2017.3571057
LK http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MC.2017.3571057

RT Journal Article
JF Computer
YR 2017
VO 50
IS 9
SP 38
TI Blockchain Technology: Transforming Libertarian Cryptocurrency Dreams to Finance and Banking Realities
A1 Ittay Eyal,
K1 Protocols
K1 Bitcoin
K1 Servers
K1 blockchain
K1 Bitcoin
K1 distributed-ledger technology
K1 DLT
K1 financial technology
K1 security
K1 privacy
K1 cryptocurrency
K1 smart contract
K1 consensus protocol
K1 proof of work
K1 proof of elapsed time
K1 proof of stake
K1 Ethereum
K1 decentralized autonomous organization
K1 DAO
K1 Corda
K1 Hyperledger
K1 Bitcoin Next Generation
K1 Solidus
K1 Spectre
AB The financial technology (FinTech) sector sees high potential value in cryptocurrency blockchain protocols, or distributed-ledger technology (DLT). However, the requirements and guarantees of blockchains for cryptocurrencies do not match those of FinTech—from transaction throughput to security primitives and privacy. The author explores how blockchain research beyond Bitcoin is closing these gaps and some of the challenges that remain.
PB IEEE Computer Society, [URL:http://www.computer.org]
SN 0018-9162
LA English
DO 10.1109/MC.2017.3571042
LK http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MC.2017.3571042

RT Journal Article
JF Computer
YR 2017
VO 50
IS 9
SP 50
TI Validation and Verification of Smart Contracts: A Research Agenda
A1 Daniele Magazzeni,
A1 Peter McBurney,
A1 William Nash,
A1 undefined,
A1 undefined,
A1 undefined,
A1 undefined,
K1 Contracts
K1 Natural languages
K1 Distributed databases
K1 Bitcoin
K1 blockchain
K1 financial technology
K1 distributed-ledger technology
K1 DLT
K1 smart contract
K1 verification
K1 validation
K1 semantics
AB Smart contracts might encode legal contracts written in natural language to represent the contracting parties’ shared understandings and intentions. The issues and research challenges involved in the validation and verification of smart contracts, particularly those running over blockchains and distributed ledgers, are explored.
PB IEEE Computer Society, [URL:http://www.computer.org]
SN 0018-9162
LA English
DO 10.1109/MC.2017.3571045
LK http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MC.2017.3571045

RT Journal Article
JF Computer
YR 2017
VO 50
IS 9
SP 58
TI The Evolution of Bitcoin Hardware
A1 undefined,
A1 undefined,
A1 undefined,
A1 undefined,
K1 Bitcoin
K1 Hardware
K1 Field programmable gate arrays
K1 Graphics processing units
K1 Data mining
K1 Exchange rates
K1 hardware
K1 blockchain
K1 financial technology
K1 hashing
K1 Bitcoin
K1 cryptocurrency
K1 digital currency
K1 cloud
K1 datacenter
K1 application-specific integrated circuit
K1 ASIC
K1 Butterfly Labs
K1 ASICMiner
K1 AvalonBitFury
K1 Bitmain
AB Since its deployment in 2009, Bitcoin has achieved remarkable success and spawned hundreds of other cryptocurrencies. The author traces the evolution of the hardware underlying the system, from early GPU-based homebrew machines to today’s datacenters powered by application-specific integrated circuits. These ASIC clouds provide a glimpse into planet-scale computing’s future.
PB IEEE Computer Society, [URL:http://www.computer.org]
SN 0018-9162
LA English
DO 10.1109/MC.2017.3571056
LK http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MC.2017.3571056

RT Journal Article
JF Computer
YR 2017
VO 50
IS 9
SP 67
TI The Importance of Human Information Processing: A Behavioral Economics Model for Predicting Domain Name Choice
A1 undefined,
A1 undefined,
A1 undefined,
A1 undefined,
K1 TV
K1 Economics
K1 Utility theory
K1 Internet
K1 Business
K1 Computational modeling
K1 Predictive models
K1 behavioral economics
K1 contextual learning
K1 decision analysis
K1 domain name choice
K1 DNS
K1 Domain Name System
K1 human information processing
K1 Internet governance
K1 domain name registration
K1 similarity analysis
K1 multialternative decision field theory
K1 MDFT
AB Studying the decisions of 25,646 domain name registrants reveals that behavioral economics models more accurately predict name choice than models based on expected utility theory. These findings have implications for Internet governance, and organizations that measure similarity and competition in domain name registration.
PB IEEE Computer Society, [URL:http://www.computer.org]
SN 0018-9162
LA English
DO 10.1109/MC.2017.3571044
LK http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MC.2017.3571044

RT Journal Article
JF Computer
YR 2017
VO 50
IS 9
SP 75
TI Stay Connected
PB IEEE Computer Society, [URL:http://www.computer.org]
SN 0018-9162
LA English
DO 10.1109/MC.2017.3571063
LK http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MC.2017.3571063

RT Journal Article
JF Computer
YR 2017
VO 50
IS 9
SP 76
TI Thwarting DoS Attacks: A Framework for Detection based on Collective Anomalies and Clustering
A1 undefined,
A1 undefined,
A1 undefined,
A1 undefined,
K1 Clustering algorithms
K1 Computer crime
K1 Mutual information
K1 Anomaly detection
K1 Weibull distribution
K1 Telecommunication traffic
K1 Protocols
K1 clustering
K1 collective anomaly
K1 mutual information
K1 Weibull distribution
K1 denial of service
K1 DoS
K1 information security
K1 security frameworks
K1 threat detection
AB A hybrid learning framework uses a collective anomaly to analyze patterns in denial-of-service attacks along with data clustering to distinguish an attack from normal network traffic. In two evaluation datasets, the framework achieved higher hit rates relative to existing anomaly-detection techniques.
PB IEEE Computer Society, [URL:http://www.computer.org]
SN 0018-9162
LA English
DO 10.1109/MC.2017.3571051
LK http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MC.2017.3571051

RT Journal Article
JF Computer
YR 2017
VO 50
IS 9
SP 83
TI Standardization and Certification Challenges for Biopharmaceutical Plants
A1 Mark Embury,
A1 Jan Clayton,
A1 undefined,
A1 undefined,
A1 undefined,
A1 undefined, K1 standards
K1 bioprocessing
K1 automation
K1 pharmaceutical
K1 biopharmaceutical
K1 regulation
K1 manufacturing

AB With automation and globalization come a variety of issues that affect manufacturing decisions concerning standardization, certification, and regulatory validation. The biopharmaceutical industry faces challenges related to the automation process’s unseen operational costs.
PB IEEE Computer Society, [URL:http://www.computer.org]
SN 0018-9162
LA English
DO 10.1109/MC.2017.3571041
LK http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MC.2017.3571041

RT Journal Article
JF Computer
YR 2017
VO 50
IS 9
SP 87
TI Oh, What a Tangled Web: Russian Hacking, Fake News, and the 2016 US Presidential Election
A1 undefined,
A1 undefined,
A1 undefined,
A1 undefined, K1 Out of Band
K1 history of computing
K1 election
K1 cybercrime
K1 hackers
K1 trolls
K1 Silk Road
K1 Ross William Ulbricht
K1 fake news

AB The real story behind alleged foreign interference in our election isn’t that it occurred—any impact on the outcome from Russian hacking and trolling was minimal—but that we set the standard for such activity and have no one but ourselves to blame.
PB IEEE Computer Society, [URL:http://www.computer.org]
SN 0018-9162
LA English
DO 10.1109/MC.2017.3571054
LK http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MC.2017.3571054

RT Journal Article
JF Computer
YR 2017
VO 50
IS 9
SP 92
TI Indie Fog: An Efficient Fog-Computing Infrastructure for the Internet of Things
A1 Chii Chang,
A1 Satish Narayana Srirama,
A1 Rajkumar Buyya,
A1 undefined,
A1 undefined,
A1 undefined,
A1 undefined,
K1 Servers
K1 Cloud computing
K1 Logic gates
K1 Edge computing
K1 Security
K1 Smart phones
K1 cloud
K1 Cloud Cover
K1 fog computing
K1 Indie Fog
K1 Internet of Things
K1 IoT
K1 Consumer as Provider
K1 CaP
AB Fog computing can help with some of the Internet of Things’ limitations but also faces challenges of its own. The Indie Fog infrastructure could be a flexible, cost-effective way to cope with these challenges.
PB IEEE Computer Society, [URL:http://www.computer.org]
SN 0018-9162
LA English
DO 10.1109/MC.2017.3571049
LK http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MC.2017.3571049

RT Journal Article
JF Computer
YR 2017
VO 50
IS 9
SP 99
TI IEEE Computer Society Information
PB IEEE Computer Society, [URL:http://www.computer.org]
SN 0018-9162
LA English
DO 10.1109/MC.2017.3571061
LK http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MC.2017.3571061

RT Journal Article
JF Computer
YR 2017
VO 50
IS 9
SP 100
TI “Alexa, Can I Trust You?”
A1 Hyunji Chung,
A1 Michaela Iorga,
A1 Jeffrey Voas,
A1 Sangjin Lee,
A1 undefined,
A1 undefined,
A1 undefined,
A1 undefined,
K1 Cloud computing
K1 Security
K1 Ecosystems
K1 Privacy
K1 Personal digital assistants
K1 Google
K1 Microprogramming
K1 Cybertrust
K1 cybersecurity
K1 security
K1 chatterbot
K1 virtual assistant
K1 intelligent virtual assistant
K1 smart assistant
K1 intelligent personal assistant
K1 digital assistant
K1 personal virtual assistant
K1 IVA
K1 Internet of Things
K1 IoT
K1 Alexa
K1 Siri
K1 Cortana
K1 Google Assistant
AB Several recent incidents highlight significant security and privacy risks associated with intelligent virtual assistants (IVAs). Better diagnostic testing of IVA ecosystems can reveal such vulnerabilities and lead to more trustworthy systems.
PB IEEE Computer Society, [URL:http://www.computer.org]
SN 0018-9162
LA English
DO 10.1109/MC.2017.3571053
LK http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MC.2017.3571053

RT Journal Article
JF Computer
YR 2017
VO 50
IS 9
SP 105
TI Bringing the Benefits Home
A1 undefined,
A1 undefined,
A1 undefined,
A1 undefined, K1 Global Code
K1 history of computing
K1 Silicon Valley
K1 technology development

AB Although Silicon Valley has been remarkably successful in developing new technologies, it might not be the ideal model for all communities. The web extra at https://youtu.be/1R3yZaWtXwo is an audio recording of author David Alan Grier reading his Global Code column.
PB IEEE Computer Society, [URL:http://www.computer.org]
SN 0018-9162
LA English
DO 10.1109/MC.2017.3571052
LK http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MC.2017.3571052

RT Journal Article
JF Computer
YR 2017
VO 50
IS 9
SP 106
TI Purdue University Team Tackles Global Underwater-Vehicle Competition
A1 Kyle Rakos,
A1 Alex Ruffino,
A1 Charles Li,
A1 Katherine Mao,
A1 Luke McBee,
A1 Ryan McBee,
A1 Matt Molo,
A1 Sanay Shah,
A1 Ian Sibley,
A1 Tyler Stagge,
A1 undefined,
A1 undefined,
A1 undefined,
A1 undefined,
K1 Contacts
K1 Software
K1 STEM
K1 Robots
K1 Underwater vehicles
K1 challenge-based learning
K1 Marine Advanced Technology Education Center
K1 MATE
K1 competition
K1 student
K1 remotely operated vehicle
K1 ROV
K1 Purdue University
AB Each year, the Marine Advanced Technology Education Center holds a remotely operated underwater-vehicle competition, with students from around the world undertaking tasks that simulate real-world implementations. A Purdue University team took home two first-place team awards and an individual achievement award. The web extra at https://youtu.be/wI9a4O4CgmU highlights the Purdue University student group as it designed, built, and piloted a remotely operated underwater vehicle.
PB IEEE Computer Society, [URL:http://www.computer.org]
SN 0018-9162
LA English
DO 10.1109/MC.2017.3571055
LK http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MC.2017.3571055

RT Journal Article
JF Computer
YR 2017
VO 50
IS 9
SP 111
TI Looking for the BEST Tech Job for You?
PB IEEE Computer Society, [URL:http://www.computer.org]
SN 0018-9162
LA English
DO 10.1109/MC.2017.3571062
LK http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MC.2017.3571062

RT Journal Article
JF Computer
YR 2017
VO 50
IS 9
SP 112
TI The Meanings in the Machine
A1 undefined,
A1 undefined,
A1 undefined,
A1 undefined, K1 The Future Today
K1 science fiction prototyping
K1 future
K1 artificial intelligence
K1 AI
K1 robots
K1 human-computer interaction
K1 HCI
K1 communication
K1 language

AB In the future, we’ll share meanings with computers, AIs, and robots. And that makes meanings matter even more.
PB IEEE Computer Society, [URL:http://www.computer.org]
SN 0018-9162
LA English
DO 10.1109/MC.2017.3571048
LK http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MC.2017.3571048

RT Journal Article
JF Computer
YR 2017
VO 50
IS 9
SP c1
TI Front Cover
AB Originally conceived as the basis of cryptocurrencies, blockchain technology has far-reaching potential in many other areas. Be sure to check out the virtual roundtable at https://youtu.be/wPFxKnlu1bA, in which R3s Tim Swanson interviews global experts on blockchain technology for finance. Also in this issue: “Oh, What a Tangled Web: Russian Hacking, Fake News, and the 2016 US Presidential Election” (p. 87) and “Indie Fog: An Efficient Fog-Computing Infrastructure for the Internet of Things” (p. 92).
PB IEEE Computer Society, [URL:http://www.computer.org]
SN 0018-9162
LA English
DO 10.1109/MC.2017.3571038
LK http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MC.2017.3571038

RT Journal Article
JF Computer
YR 2017
VO 50
IS 9
SP c2
TI Achieve your career goals with the fit that’s right for you.
PB IEEE Computer Society, [URL:http://www.computer.org]
SN 0018-9162
LA English
DO 10.1109/MC.2017.3571058
LK http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MC.2017.3571058

RT Journal Article
JF Computer
YR 2017
VO 50
IS 9
SP c3
TI One membership. Unlimited knowledge.
PB IEEE Computer Society, [URL:http://www.computer.org]
SN 0018-9162
LA English
DO 10.1109/MC.2017.3571059
LK http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MC.2017.3571059

RT Journal Article
JF Computer
YR 2017
VO 50
IS 9
SP c4
TI Move Your Career Forward IEEE Computer Society Membership
PB IEEE Computer Society, [URL:http://www.computer.org]
SN 0018-9162
LA English
DO 10.1109/MC.2017.3571039
LK http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MC.2017.3571039