RT Journal Article
JF IEEE Annals of the History of Computing
YR 2013
VO 35
IS
SP 31
TI History of Sybase
A1 Bob Epstein,
K1 Database systems
K1 History
K1 Companies
K1 Computer industry
K1 Marketing and sales
K1 Investments
K1 Strategic planning
K1 Ashton-Tate
K1 history of computing
K1 Sybase
K1 relational database management systems
K1 financial services
K1 business computing
K1 Oracle
K1 Microsoft
AB One of the cofounders of Sybase tells about the birth of the company in 1984 and its strategy for entering what appeared to be a crowded marketplace. The article discusses how they were able to raise the funding needed. It tracks the technical development of the initial product that supported Sun and DEC computers and was rapidly accepted by the Wall Street community. The technical advantages of Sybase are described along with its marketing thrust to compete with Oracle. It covers the business relationship with Microsoft and Ashton-Tate and how the product performed in benchmarking tests. The problems with acquisitions, growth, and competition are described. It concludes with the changes in management and the company's acquisition by SAP.
PB IEEE Computer Society, [URL:http://www.computer.org]
SN 1058-6180
LA English
DO 10.1109/MAHC.2012.52
LK http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MAHC.2012.52

RT Journal Article
JF IEEE Annals of the History of Computing
YR 2013
VO 35
IS
SP 54
TI The History and Growth of IBM's DB2
A1 Cynthia M. Saracco,
A1 Donald J. Haderle,
K1 Decision support systems
K1 Database systems
K1 Companies
K1 Marketing and sales
K1 History
K1 mainframe computing
K1 history of computing
K1 IBM
K1 relational database management systems
K1 DB2
AB IBM's Database 2 (DB2) relational database management system (RDBMS) shipped in the early 1980s and drove billions of dollars of revenue to IBM and other firms within its first decade. The product spawned a wealth of add-on tools, shaped the future of mainframe computing, and provided independent software vendors with a strong, reliable, and scalable platform for mission-critical applications. Today, DB2 spans multiple operating systems and is widely deployed across a broad spectrum of industries. This article explores the beginnings of DB2 and traces its rise to prominence.
PB IEEE Computer Society, [URL:http://www.computer.org]
SN 1058-6180
LA English
DO 10.1109/MAHC.2012.55
LK http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MAHC.2012.55

RT Journal Article
JF IEEE Annals of the History of Computing
YR 2013
VO 35
IS
SP 42
TI Informix: Information Management on Unix
A1 Roger Sippl,
K1 History
K1 Companies
K1 Software development
K1 Microcomputers
K1 Marketing and sales
K1 software
K1 history of computing
K1 Informix
K1 relational database management systems
K1 microcomputing
K1 Silicon Valley
AB This history of Informix is told from the founder's point of view and his personal experience. He talks about the Silicon Valley of the late 1970s, the "fire in the valley" days, and the feeling that history was going to be made and that computer scientists would be playing a major role in these changes. The relational database revolution, the flourishing success of the PC packaged software industry, and the Unix server victories are the backdrop for this story. Like all stories about a young company, it is about people and what drives entrepreneurs to take oversized chances and accept the risks involved.
PB IEEE Computer Society, [URL:http://www.computer.org]
SN 1058-6180
LA English
DO 10.1109/MAHC.2012.53
LK http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MAHC.2012.53

RT Journal Article
JF IEEE Annals of the History of Computing
YR 2013
VO 35
IS
SP 10
TI The Oracle Story: 1984-2001
A1 Andrew Mendelsohn,
K1 Database systems
K1 Microcomputers
K1 Companies
K1 Technological innovation
K1 History
K1 Larry Ellison
K1 history of computing
K1 Oracle
K1 relational database management systems
K1 mainframe computing
AB This article tells the story of Oracle from 1984 through 2001, primarily through the author's experiences during those years. Andrew Mendelsohn worked on the software development team that built the Oracle relational database management system (RDBMS). During this time, Oracle went from being a small niche software company to becoming one of the giants in the software industry. Although many observers believe Oracle's strong marketing and sales organizations were the primary reasons for its success during this time, Mendelsohn argues that Oracle's success was also due to its highly innovative RDBMS product that was strongly differentiated from its competitors. This article traces the development of the Oracle RDBMS through the mainframe, minicomputer, client-server, and Internet computing eras. It calls out the key competitors at each stage and the key product innovations that allowed Oracle to compete so successfully in the market. Finally, this article also provides insight into the workings of the overall Oracle business and culture.
PB IEEE Computer Society, [URL:http://www.computer.org]
SN 1058-6180
LA English
DO 10.1109/MAHC.2012.56
LK http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MAHC.2012.56

RT Journal Article
JF IEEE Annals of the History of Computing
YR 2013
VO 35
IS
SP 2
TI From the Editor's Desk
A1 Lars Heide,
K1 Computer History Museum
K1 history of computing
K1 history of software
K1 business computing
K1 relational database management systems
K1 Burton Grad
K1 Luanne Johnson
K1 Software Industry Special Interest Group
AB IEEE Annals has already published several pioneer accounts and scholarly articles on the transformation from commercial mainframe computers to distributed local area networks (LAN) of personal computers linked to a server in a branch office. This reshaping of computers encompassed extensive basic hardware and software innovations and provided widespread new business opportunities. However, more documentation and historical studies are needed for us to reach a comprehensive understanding of the dynamics and impact of this transformation on business, technology, and how we live and work. This issue is the sixth in series of special issues on software history. Burton Grad serves as guest editor for this issue on "Relational Database Management Systems: The Business Explosion."
PB IEEE Computer Society, [URL:http://www.computer.org]
SN 1058-6180
LA English
DO 10.1109/MAHC.2013.19
LK http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MAHC.2013.19

RT Journal Article
JF IEEE Annals of the History of Computing
YR 2013
VO 35
IS
SP 76
TI Events and Sightings
A1 Chigusa Kita,
K1 machine translation
K1 history of computing
K1 Paul Allen
K1 Living Computer Museum
K1 IEEJ
K1 IPSJ
K1 David Allen Grier
K1 Smithsonian Institution
K1 Foundation for Computational Science (FOCUS)
K1 MADIC-IIA
K1 MZ-80K
K1 KT-1
AB This Events and Sightings department article covers the opening reception at the Paul Allen's Living Computer Museum in Seattle, Washington, the Institute of Electrical Engineers of Japan (IEEJ) technical meeting on the "History of Electrical Engineering," and recent events at the Information Processing Society of Japan (IPSJ) 75th national convention.
PB IEEE Computer Society, [URL:http://www.computer.org]
SN 1058-6180
LA English
DO 10.1109/MAHC.2013.18
LK http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MAHC.2013.18

RT Journal Article
JF IEEE Annals of the History of Computing
YR 2013
VO 35
IS
SP 8
TI Relational Database Management Systems: The Business Explosion [Guest editor's introduction]
A1 Burton Grad,
K1 History
K1 Companies
K1 Database systems
K1 Databases
K1 Information systems
K1 software industry
K1 history of computing
K1 relational databases
K1 relational database management systems
K1 IBM
K1 Oracle
K1 Sybase
K1 Informix
K1 Ingres
K1 E.F. (Ted) Codd
K1 database industry
K1 RDBMS
AB This special issue (part 2 of a series began with the special issue in October-December 2012) tells the history of how IBM and several new, independent software companies built companies that supplanted the database management system companies and their DBMS models in both query-oriented usage and in many transaction-processing applications. The story of this transformation is told in this issue of the Annals, which describes how each of these pioneering relational database management companies developed and marketed their products to meet the relational challenge and how well they succeeded. The result was explosive business growth and creation of five companies with more than $1 billion in sales. This special issue focuses on the growth of four of the leading RDBMS companies, with recollections by the pioneers about the history of the companies that they worked for: IBM, Oracle, Informix, and Sybase.
PB IEEE Computer Society, [URL:http://www.computer.org]
SN 1058-6180
LA English
DO 10.1109/MAHC.2013.24
LK http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MAHC.2013.24

RT Journal Article
JF IEEE Annals of the History of Computing
YR 2013
VO 35
IS
SP 88
TI Machines Who Write [Think Piece]
A1 Stephanie Dick,
K1 Mathematics
K1 Computers
K1 Writing
K1 Programming
K1 Turing machines
K1 book history
K1 history of computing
K1 Alan Turing
K1 Logic Theory Machine
K1 Allen Newell
K1 Herbert Simon
K1 John Clifford Shaw
K1 RAND Johnniac
K1 Alfred North Whitehead
K1 Bertrand Russell
K1 Principia Mathematica
K1 automated theorem proving
K1 history of mathematics
K1 media history
AB In 1936, Alan Turing remarked that "computing is normally done by writing certain symbols on paper." Although computing was then the prerogative of human computers, Turing imagined that machines might calculate by writing as well. Turing intended for this notional machine to be analogous to human computers who calculated by writing and manipulating symbols, relying on paper to augment their memories. But to what extent is Turing's machine actually writing and reading like a human computer? Recent scholarship in the history of mathematics has argued that mathematical thinking and practice are inextricably entwined with the historical development of different cultures and systems of writing. Looking at computer writing as writing directs historical attention away from abstract formal representations of hardware and software and toward the materiality of data--how it is inscribed and configured within specific digital media.
PB IEEE Computer Society, [URL:http://www.computer.org]
SN 1058-6180
LA English
DO 10.1109/MAHC.2013.21
LK http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MAHC.2013.21

RT Journal Article
JF IEEE Annals of the History of Computing
YR 2013
VO 35
IS
SP 82
TI Biomedical Computing: Digitizing Life in the United States[ (November, J.; 2012) [Reviews]
A1 Andrew Russell,
K1 Book reviews
K1 Biomedical computing
K1 Digital communication
K1 Biomedical informatics
K1 Wesley Clark
K1 history of computing
K1 biomedical computing
K1 LINC
K1 ACCR
K1 ACME
K1 IBM
K1 technology design
K1 corporate computing
K1 Robert S. Ledley
K1 Lee B. Lusted
AB This set of Reviews covers Joseph November's Biomedical Computing: Digitizing Life in the United States (Johns Hopkins University Press, 2012) and John Harwood's The Interface: IBM and the Transformation of Corporate Design (University of Minnesota Press, 2011).
PB IEEE Computer Society, [URL:http://www.computer.org]
SN 1058-6180
LA English
DO 10.1109/MAHC.2013.25
LK http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MAHC.2013.25

RT Journal Article
JF IEEE Annals of the History of Computing
YR 2013
VO 35
IS
SP 4
TI Computer Industry Pioneer: Erwin Tomash (1921-2012)
A1 Jeffrey R. Yost,
K1 Obituaries
K1 Biographies
K1 Tomash
K1 Erwin
K1 Tomash Fellowship
K1 history of computing
K1 Erwin Tomash
K1 Charles Babbage Foundation
K1 computer history research
K1 Charles Babbage Institute
K1 CBI Archives
AB Computer industry pioneer and visionary cofounder (with his wife Adelle Tomash) of the Charles Babbage Foundation (CBF) and the Charles Babbage Institute (CBI), Erwin Tomash passed away on 10 December 2012. In the late 1940s, Tomash was an engineer at Engineering Research Associates (ERA), one of two firms that launched the US computer industry. He later founded and led Dataproducts Corporation, a Fortune 500 computer peripherals and core memory firm. Erwin and Adelle Tomash's insights and generosity in founding, supporting, and advising CBF and CBI have had a profound and continuing impact on the infrastructure for research and publication of scholarship on computer and software history.
PB IEEE Computer Society, [URL:http://www.computer.org]
SN 1058-6180
LA English
DO 10.1109/MAHC.2013.17
LK http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MAHC.2013.17

RT Journal Article
JF IEEE Annals of the History of Computing
YR 2013
VO 35
IS
SP 24
TI Oracle Marketing: Killer Ads
A1 Rick Bennett,
K1 Advertising
K1 Companies
K1 Marketing and sales
K1 History
K1 Ellison
K1 Larry
K1 Database systems
K1 Larry Ellison
K1 history of computing
K1 Oracle
K1 relational database management systems
K1 advertising
AB Rick Bennett was Oracle's one-man ad agency from 1984 to 1990 as it grew from $15 million to $1 billion in sales. Bennett chronicles the company's approach to advertising, some of its more successful and controversial ads, and his experiences working personally with Larry Ellison.
PB IEEE Computer Society, [URL:http://www.computer.org]
SN 1058-6180
LA English
DO 10.1109/MAHC.2013.22
LK http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MAHC.2013.22

RT Journal Article
JF IEEE Annals of the History of Computing
YR 2013
VO 35
IS
SP 67
TI Product Managing DB2's Early Development
A1 Marilyn Bohl,
K1 History
K1 Companies
K1 Laboratories
K1 Database systems
K1 Marketing and sales
K1 relational database management systems
K1 history of computing
K1 IBM
K1 DB2
AB In late 1979, IBM senior management charged IBM's Santa Teresa Lab with the task of building a new relational database management system for its principal operating system, MVS. Marilyn Bohl became the DB2 product manager for version 1. This article describes DB2's early development organization and product testing and review as well as how it fit in IBM's other divisions and product releases.
PB IEEE Computer Society, [URL:http://www.computer.org]
SN 1058-6180
LA English
DO 10.1109/MAHC.2013.23
LK http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MAHC.2013.23

RT Journal Article
JF IEEE Annals of the History of Computing
YR 2013
VO 35
IS
SP 69
TI SQL/DS: IBM's First RDBMS
A1 Bert Nicol,
A1 Hershel Harris,
K1 Companies
K1 History
K1 Software development
K1 Hardware
K1 Marketing and sales
K1 Commercialization
K1 Databse systems
K1 Strategic planning
K1 SQL/DS
K1 history of computing
K1 IBM
K1 DB2
K1 relational database management systems
K1 SQL
AB In the late 1970s, IBM software labs were aligned with the IBM hardware families. The decisions to commercialize the relational database prototype called System R, which had been developed during the 1970s at the IBM Research facility in San Jose, California, were made based on a hardware family business case. The Endicott Lab, supporting the small- to mid-sized mainframe environments running VM and VSE, had the skills and the competitive pressure to launch the relational database management system (RDBMS) commercialization project in 1979, and delivered SQL/DS two years later. This article traces how SQL/DS, running on VSE and then on VM, became IBM's first commercial relational database in 1982, over a year before the availability of DB2 running on MVS.
PB IEEE Computer Society, [URL:http://www.computer.org]
SN 1058-6180
LA English
DO 10.1109/MAHC.2013.28
LK http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MAHC.2013.28

RT Journal Article
JF IEEE Annals of the History of Computing
YR 2013
VO 35
IS
SP 72
TI The SQL StandarD: How it Happened
A1 Donald R. Deutsch,
K1 NIST
K1 Standards organizations
K1 History
K1 Standards development
K1 standards
K1 history of computing
K1 IBM
K1 NIST
K1 relational database management systems
K1 SQL
AB Donald R. Deutsch joined the US government agency now called the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in the last 1970s and the X3H2 Database Standards Committee (DSC) in Washington DC in April 1978. Initially chartered only to develop a standard Data Definition Language (DDL) for network DBMSs, in time the DSC became the epicenter of US and international SQL standardization. Deutsch became the DSC vice chair at the second meeting and chair at the committee's 11th meeting in May 1980. Throughout his career that included (in addition to NIST) GE, Sybase, and now Oracle, he has continued to chair the DSC. From this perspective, this article describes how the SQL standard happened.
PB IEEE Computer Society, [URL:http://www.computer.org]
SN 1058-6180
LA English
DO 10.1109/MAHC.2013.30
LK http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MAHC.2013.30