RT Journal Article
JF IEEE Annals of the History of Computing
YR 2010
VO 32
IS
SP 58
TI Unraveling Algol: US, Europe, and the Creation of a Programming Language
A1 David Nofre,
K1 history of software
K1 programming languages
K1 universal language
K1 Algol
K1 history of computing
AB <p>Current views on the programming language Algol assume its European origins. However, the inability to exchange information between computers affected both sides of the Atlantic. Whereas Algol promoters sought to create one universal programming language, other approaches sought to preserve a variety of languages and create a general translation system. Therefore, the polarity was not between programming languages, but uniformity versus diversity.</p>
PB IEEE Computer Society, [URL:http://www.computer.org]
SN 1058-6180
LA English
DO 10.1109/MAHC.2010.4
LK http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MAHC.2010.4

RT Journal Article
JF IEEE Annals of the History of Computing
YR 2010
VO 32
IS
SP 32
TI Appropriating American Technology in the 1960s: Cold War Politics and the GDR Computer Industry
A1 Simon Donig,
K1 technology transfer
K1 Cold War
K1 Robotron Combine
K1 Unified System
K1 GDR
K1 IBM
K1 CDC
K1 socialist artifact
K1 computer industry
K1 technology policy
K1 history of computing
AB <p>Paradoxically, at the height of the Cold War, the Eastern and Western Blocs became increasingly technologically entangled. From 1964 onward, the German Democratic Republic drew greatly from US companies as role models when building a national computer industry. Numerous challenges and conflicts arose from appropriating knowledge and artifacts while politically rejecting the society in which they originated.</p>
PB IEEE Computer Society, [URL:http://www.computer.org]
SN 1058-6180
LA English
DO 10.1109/MAHC.2010.6
LK http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MAHC.2010.6

RT Journal Article
JF IEEE Annals of the History of Computing
YR 2010
VO 32
IS
SP 21
TI Sovietization of Czechoslovakian Computing: The Rise and Fall of the SAPO Project
A1 Helena Durnová,
K1 SAPO computer
K1 Antonin Svoboda
AB <p>After World War II, Anton&#x00ED;n Svoboda returned to Czechoslovakia with experience in building analog computers, a keen interest in digital computing technology, and aspirations to establish a computer industry in his homeland. Svoboda's original ideas were further developed by his students and colleagues and reflected in the design of SAPO, the first Czechoslovakian computer, in the 1950s.</p>
PB IEEE Computer Society, [URL:http://www.computer.org]
SN 1058-6180
LA English
DO 10.1109/MAHC.2010.7
LK http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MAHC.2010.7

RT Journal Article
JF IEEE Annals of the History of Computing
YR 2010
VO 32
IS
SP 46
TI Cold War Origins of the International Federation for Information Processing
A1 Ksenia Tatarchenko,
K1 IFIP
K1 UNESCO
K1 Cold War
K1 Soviet computing
K1 international cooperation
K1 history of computing
AB <p>The International Federation for Information Processing (IFIP) was born as a nongovernmental federation with the main goal of bringing together computer professionals from countries in the East and West. This article examines the Cold War context of the IFIP's origins and the mechanisms its founders used to reconcile computing and politics and to construct computing as an international discipline.</p>
PB IEEE Computer Society, [URL:http://www.computer.org]
SN 1058-6180
LA English
DO 10.1109/MAHC.2010.8
LK http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MAHC.2010.8

RT Journal Article
JF IEEE Annals of the History of Computing
YR 2010
VO 32
IS
SP 80
TI Anecdotes
K1 Computing Devices of Canada
K1 Ted Codd
K1 NRC 102 computers
K1 Digital Computer Association
AB <p>The two anecdotes in this issue each give a flavor for a time and place in computing history. Specifically, Keith Smillie recounts the work of the small electronics firm Computing Devices of Canada and his experiences working there with Ted Codd in the 1950s, and Robert Patrick recalls the early days of the Los Angeles Digital Computer Association.</p>
PB IEEE Computer Society, [URL:http://www.computer.org]
SN 1058-6180
LA English
DO 10.1109/MAHC.2010.29
LK http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MAHC.2010.29

RT Journal Article
JF IEEE Annals of the History of Computing
YR 2010
VO 32
IS
SP 2
TI From the Editor's Desk
A1 Jeffrey R. Yost,
K1 Annals
K1 From the Editor's Desk
AB This issue brings together a selection of history of computing and software papers from the Appropriating America Conference in Amsterdam in 2009.
PB IEEE Computer Society, [URL:http://www.computer.org]
SN 1058-6180
LA English
DO 10.1109/MAHC.2010.36
LK http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MAHC.2010.36

RT Journal Article
JF IEEE Annals of the History of Computing
YR 2010
VO 32
IS
SP 4
TI Appropriating America: Americanization in the History of European Computing
A1 Gerard Alberts,
K1 Cold War computing
K1 history of computing
K1 Americanization
K1 Sovietization
K1 history of software
K1 Europe
K1 appropriation of technology
AB <p>Five articles resulting from the Appropriating America, Making Europe Conference (held in Amsterdam, 15&#x2013;17 January 2009) are introduced in the light of the existing literature in American studies and the contrasting approaches of the history of postwar reconstruction and Cold War history. All five articles convey the tension between hegemonic and consensus interpretation. More than that, the set of five shows a pathway beyond, toward a transnational history of computing.</p>
PB IEEE Computer Society, [URL:http://www.computer.org]
SN 1058-6180
LA English
DO 10.1109/MAHC.2010.30
LK http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MAHC.2010.30

RT Journal Article
JF IEEE Annals of the History of Computing
YR 2010
VO 32
IS
SP 8
TI Computing the American Way: Contextualizing the Early US Computer Industry
A1 Thomas Haigh,
K1 History of computing
K1 IBM
K1 Cold War
K1 Americanization
K1 welfare capitalism
K1 New Deal Order
K1 Thomas J. Watson
AB <p>Drawing on work from business, social, and labor history, this article reinterprets the early domestic US computer industry in its broader economic and political context. Contrary to popular imagination, the early computer industry emerges as one devoted primarily to government business, liberal in its political leanings, and with a paternalist corporate culture profoundly shaped by the threat of unionization.</p>
PB IEEE Computer Society, [URL:http://www.computer.org]
SN 1058-6180
LA English
DO 10.1109/MAHC.2010.33
LK http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MAHC.2010.33

RT Journal Article
JF IEEE Annals of the History of Computing
YR 2010
VO 32
IS
SP 69
TI Israel
A1 Michael Geselowitz,
K1 Israel high tech
K1 IBM
K1 National Semiconductor
K1 Jerusalem
K1 Rehovot
AB In the past four decades or so, Israel has become a center for high-tech research and development.
PB IEEE Computer Society, [URL:http://www.computer.org]
SN 1058-6180
LA English
DO 10.1109/MAHC.2010.40
LK http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MAHC.2010.40

RT Journal Article
JF IEEE Annals of the History of Computing
YR 2010
VO 32
IS
SP 70
TI Reviews
K1 Book review
AB Two books are reviewed in this issue: Simulation and Its Discontents and History of Nordic Computing 2: Second IFIP WG 9.7 Conference (HiNC2).
PB IEEE Computer Society, [URL:http://www.computer.org]
SN 1058-6180
LA English
DO 10.1109/MAHC.2010.41
LK http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MAHC.2010.41

RT Journal Article
JF IEEE Annals of the History of Computing
YR 2010
VO 32
IS
SP 72
TI Heinrich Welker
A1 Armand Van Dormael,
K1 Heinrich Welker
K1 transistron
K1 Siemens
K1 Herbert Matar&#x00E9;
K1 III-V semiconductors
K1 Gallium arsenide
K1 history of computing
AB <p>Heinrich Welker's work as a theoretical physicist in the 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s focused on the then novel fields of superconductivity and CMOS technology. Specifically, his theoretical and experimental research on gallium arsenide laid the foundations for a range of diversified industries. His pioneering ideas are at the origin of the major technology developments that led to the 1970 inauguration of the Arpanet, precursor of the Internet. Compound semiconductors are the building blocks of light-emitting devices, such as lasers, and of light-detecting devices such as photocells. They opened the way to CD players and DVD recorders, sophisticated night-vision equipment, fiber optical communications systems, solar photovoltaic panels, flat-panel displays, mobile phones, and all devices that make up the technological revolution that shapes so many aspects of our lives.</p>
PB IEEE Computer Society, [URL:http://www.computer.org]
SN 1058-6180
LA English
DO 10.1109/MAHC.2010.39
LK http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MAHC.2010.39

RT Journal Article
JF IEEE Annals of the History of Computing
YR 2010
VO 32
IS
SP 84
TI Events and Sightings
A1 Chigusa Kita,
K1
PB IEEE Computer Society, [URL:http://www.computer.org]
SN 1058-6180
LA English
DO 10.1109/MAHC.2010.35
LK http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MAHC.2010.35

RT Journal Article
JF IEEE Annals of the History of Computing
YR 2010
VO 32
IS
SP 87
TI Technology in the Political Landscape
A1 Christopher McDonald,
K1 History of computing
K1 history of telecommunications
K1 politics
AB <p>Politics can shape technology not only directly, but also via institutions and regulations that are the product of political choices. The different histories of videotex in France and the US provide such an example. The French state telephone company, a unified actor with little outside oversight, was willing and able to build a national videotex system, known as Minitel. In the US, however, traditions of private telecommunications ownership and suspicion of monopoly power made such an outcome highly unlikely.</p>
PB IEEE Computer Society, [URL:http://www.computer.org]
SN 1058-6180
LA English
DO 10.1109/MAHC.2010.42
LK http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MAHC.2010.42