RT Journal Article
JF IEEE Annals of the History of Computing
YR 2014
VO 36
IS 2
SP 2
TI From the Editor's DeskK1 Finnish computing
K1 history of computing
K1 amateur computing
K1 ENIAC
K1 PCs
K1 Arpanet IMP

AB This issue features several articles that give different perspectives on the emergence of affordable computers for use by ordinary people. Specifically, Kevin Gotkin's "When Computers Were Amateur" and Petri Saarikoski and Markku Reunanen's "Great Northern Machine Wars: Rivalry Between User Groups in Finland" look at the history of amateur computing from the perspective of the users, rather than that of the manufacturers or by focusing on technological artifacts. The issue also includes a discussion of the 1940s effort to convert ENIAC to the new style of programming first described in John von Neumann's "First Draft of a Report on the EDVAC" and an article by David Walden and his team of contributors that documents the emergence of the Arpanet Interface Message Processor (IMP) program and how it evolved to run on a variety of hardware platforms.
PB IEEE Computer Society, [URL:http://www.computer.org]
SN 1058-6180
LA English
DO 10.1109/MAHC.2014.18
LK http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MAHC.2014.18

RT Journal Article
JF IEEE Annals of the History of Computing
YR 2014
VO 36
IS 2
SP 4
TI When Computers Were Amateur
K1 Computers
K1 History
K1 Hardware
K1 Organizations
K1 microcomputers
K1 history of computing
K1 hobbyist organization
K1 amateurism
K1 personal computers
AB This article examines the records of the Amateur Computer Society (1966-1976), a hobbyist organization whose newsletters chronicle an important corner in the history of computing. It argues for amateurism as an important foil to histories firmly ensconced in the firm or lab, often focused on technological artifacts. The author offers two readings of the newsletters: one that looks at the discussion of schematics as a contested representation of amateur expertise and the other that reveals the crucial links between amateur practice and domesticity. In addition to this portrait of early computer building hobbyists, the article sketches the amateur as a meaningful analytic category for the history of computing.
PB IEEE Computer Society, [URL:http://www.computer.org]
SN 1058-6180
LA English
DO 10.1109/MAHC.2014.32
LK http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MAHC.2014.32

RT Journal Article
JF IEEE Annals of the History of Computing
YR 2014
VO 36
IS 2
SP 16
TI Great Northern Machine Wars: Rivalry Between User Groups in Finland
A1 Petri Saarikoski,
A1 Markku Reunanen,
K1 History
K1 Finland
K1 Commercialization
K1 Companies
K1 Hardware
K1 Marketing and sales
K1 home computing
K1 history of computing
K1 computer wars
K1 computing platforms
K1 Finnish computing
K1 videogame consoles
AB The history of computing has been colored by "computer wars" that have raged between various companies competing in the market. The commercial wars have received a great deal of attention, whereas the clashes between supporters of different platforms remain largely undocumented. This article approaches the topic from a Finnish hobbyist perspective through three case studies, ranging from the emergence of affordable home computers and video game consoles in the early 1980s to modern-day wars. The results suggest that even though the social and technological landscape has changed significantly during the last 30 years, the essence of the computer wars has remained largely unchanged.
PB IEEE Computer Society, [URL:http://www.computer.org]
SN 1058-6180
LA English
DO 10.1109/MAHC.2014.20
LK http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MAHC.2014.20

RT Journal Article
JF IEEE Annals of the History of Computing
YR 2014
VO 36
IS 2
SP 28
TI The Arpanet IMP Program: Retrospective and Resurrection
A1 David Walden,
A1 IMP Software Guys,
K1 Software development
K1 History
K1 Computers
K1 Arpanet
K1 Multiprocessing systems
K1 Internet
K1 Software algorithms
K1 retro history
K1 history of computing
K1 network software
K1 BBN
K1 Arpanet
K1 software reuse
K1 software evolution
K1 historical reconstruction
K1 living history
AB People from Bolt Beranek and Newman and others have extensively documented the Arpanet technology, including the Arpanet Interface Message Processor (IMP). This paper sketches the history (not the previously described technology) of the IMP program as originally written in 1969 for the modified Honeywell 516 computer. A sequence of other systems, evolving from the original software system and running on a variety of hardware platforms, are also enumerated. In 2013 a faded 1973 line printer listing of the IMP program was run through a special OCR program optimized to process such historical artifacts; an assembler was recreated to assemble the IMP code (looking like the modified PDP-1 Midas assembler used in 1973); and a software emulator of the original IMP hardware platform was created. This article also describes the methods used to recover a digital copy and assemble and run again the 1973 IMP code.
PB IEEE Computer Society, [URL:http://www.computer.org]
SN 1058-6180
LA English
DO 10.1109/MAHC.2014.30
LK http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MAHC.2014.30

RT Journal Article
JF IEEE Annals of the History of Computing
YR 2014
VO 36
IS 2
SP 41
TI Engineering "The Miracle of the ENIAC": Implementing the Modern Code Paradigm
A1 Thomas Haigh,
A1 Mark Priestley,
A1 Crispin Rope,
K1 Computers
K1 History
K1 Programming
K1 Encoding
K1 Monte Carlo methods
K1 user-driven innovation
K1 history of computing
K1 ENIAC
K1 John von Neumann
K1 Adele Goldstine
K1 Nick Metropolis
K1 stored program concept
K1 modern code paradigm
AB In 1947 John von Neumann had the idea of converting ENIAC to the new style of programming first described in his celebrated "First Draft of a Report on the EDVAC." By April 1948, Nick Metropolis, building on plans developed by Adele Goldstine and others, had implemented the conversion, making ENIAC the first computer to execute programs written in the new style, which we call the "modern code paradigm." Treating this as a case of user-driven innovation, the authors document the conversion process and compare capabilities of the reconstructed machine to those of the first modern computers. This article is the second in a three-part series. The first article, "Reconsidering the Stored Program Concept" (published in IEEE Annals, vol. 36, no. 1, 2014; http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MAHC.2013.56), examined the history of the aforesaid idea and proposed a set of more specific alternatives. The third, "Los Alamos Bets on ENIAC: Nuclear Monte Carlo Simulations, 1947-1948" (to appear in IEEE Annals, vol. 36, no. 3, 2014; http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MAHC.2013.56), will examine in detail the first program run on the machine after its conversion to the new programming method.
PB IEEE Computer Society, [URL:http://www.computer.org]
SN 1058-6180
LA English
DO 10.1109/MAHC.2014.15
LK http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MAHC.2014.15

RT Journal Article
JF IEEE Annals of the History of Computing
YR 2014
VO 36
IS 2
SP 60
TI John Womersley: Applied Mathematician and Pioneer of Modern Computing
A1 Brian E. Carpenter,
A1 Robert W. Doran,
K1 Mathematics
K1 Computers
K1 Government
K1 History
K1 Production facilities
K1 Engineering profession
K1 Biographies
K1 Pilot ACE
K1 history of computing
K1 John R. Womersley
K1 applied mathematics
K1 electronic computation
K1 Alan Turing
K1 BTM
K1 NPL
AB John R. Womersley's career epitomized how numerical and statistical methods came into widespread use from the 1930s, in Britain as in other Western countries. As an applied mathematician and then a manager of mathematicians and statisticians, in war and in peacetime, Womersley and his career reflect the major trends in British applied mathematics, statistics, and automated computation in the middle decades of the 20th century. Womersley made both significant scientific contributions in applied mathematics and managerial contributions to computer innovation. He was also involved at the beginning of electronic computers.
PB IEEE Computer Society, [URL:http://www.computer.org]
SN 1058-6180
LA English
DO 10.1109/MAHC.2014.25
LK http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MAHC.2014.25

RT Journal Article
JF IEEE Annals of the History of Computing
YR 2014
VO 36
IS 2
SP 72
TI Grounding Digital History in the History of Computing
A1 William J. Turkel,
A1 Shezan Muhammedi,
A1 Mary Beth Start,
K1 History
K1 Computers
K1 digital history
K1 history of computing
K1 history of technology
AB In this brief article, we use the relatively recent publication of a number of books on the subject as a launching point to argue that digital history should be grounded in the history of computing.
PB IEEE Computer Society, [URL:http://www.computer.org]
SN 1058-6180
LA English
DO 10.1109/MAHC.2014.21
LK http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MAHC.2014.21

RT Journal Article
JF IEEE Annals of the History of Computing
YR 2014
VO 36
IS 2
SP 77
TI Events and SightingsK1 CHM Fellow Awards
K1 history of computing
K1 history of technology
K1 Computer History Museum

AB This Events & Sightings installment covers a range of recent events focusing on the history of computing.
PB IEEE Computer Society, [URL:http://www.computer.org]
SN 1058-6180
LA English
DO 10.1109/MAHC.2014.16
LK http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MAHC.2014.16

RT Journal Article
JF IEEE Annals of the History of Computing
YR 2014
VO 36
IS 2
SP 80
TI Early Token Ring Work at MIT
K1 Token networks
K1 Local area networks
K1 Proteon
K1 history of computing
K1 hardware
K1 token ring LAN
K1 MIT
K1 Ethernet
K1 Local Network Interface
K1 LNI V1
K1 LNI V2
AB Token ring local area networks (LANs) are now obsolete technologies, but early work on them at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology produced networks that have left their mark on today's LANs. Noel Chiappa tells the story of early work at the Laboratory for Computer Science (LCS) at MIT on token rings.
PB IEEE Computer Society, [URL:http://www.computer.org]
SN 1058-6180
LA English
DO 10.1109/MAHC.2014.14
LK http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MAHC.2014.14

RT Journal Article
JF IEEE Annals of the History of Computing
YR 2014
VO 36
IS 2
SP 88
TI Toward a History of Social Computing: Children, Classrooms, Campuses, and Communities
K1 History
K1 Social computing
K1 Social network services
K1 Communication networks
K1 networked communications
K1 history of computing
K1 social computing
K1 education and computing
AB Modern computing involves not only computation but also communication among many people, along with their cultural norms, values, and expectations. Yet, historians have only begun to address how people made computing ubiquitous. The history of computing should include the myriad human interactions that have shaped and supported our digital, networked world.
PB IEEE Computer Society, [URL:http://www.computer.org]
SN 1058-6180
LA English
DO 10.1109/MAHC.2014.31
LK http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MAHC.2014.31

RT Journal Article
JF IEEE Annals of the History of Computing
YR 2014
VO 36
IS 2
SP c1
TI [Front cover]
AB Presents the front cover for this issue of the magazine.
PB IEEE Computer Society, [URL:http://www.computer.org]
SN 1058-6180
LA English
DO 10.1109/MAHC.2014.19
LK http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MAHC.2014.19