RT Journal Article
JF IEEE Annals of the History of Computing
YR 2014
VO 36
IS 1
SP 2
TI From the Editor's DeskK1 software distribution
K1 history of computing
K1 TWA Teleregister ticket terminal
K1 stored program concept
K1 Barcelona's School of Informatics
K1 Nomad
K1 4GL
K1 SDC
K1 time-sharing system
K1 EDS

AB This issue features several articles that give different perspectives on "modern computing" and how that concept evolves with emerging and retiring technologies. Specifically, the issue includes a discussion of the stored-program concept by Thomas Haigh, Mark Priestley, and Crispin Rope; a history of academic computer science degrees in Spain and the origins of Barcelona's School of Informatics by Jordi Fornes and Nestor Herran; a history of the fourth generation language (4GL) Nomad by Nicholas Rawlings; a rediscovery of the messaging capabilities in the SDC time-sharing system by David Hemmendinger; and a look at early commercial electronic distribution of software in the late 1970s by Zbigniew Stachniak.
PB IEEE Computer Society, [URL:http://www.computer.org]
SN 1058-6180
LA English
DO 10.1109/MAHC.2014.2
LK http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MAHC.2014.2

RT Journal Article
JF IEEE Annals of the History of Computing
YR 2014
VO 36
IS 1
SP 4
TI Reconsidering the Stored-Program Concept
A1 Thomas Haigh,
A1 Mark Priestley,
A1 Crispin Rope,
K1 Programming
K1 History
K1 Memory management
K1 Programming environments
K1 Software tools
K1 EDVAC hardware paradigm
K1 history of computing
K1 stored program
K1 stored program concept
K1 ENIAC
K1 EDVAC
K1 John von Neumann
K1 modern code paradigm
K1 von Neumann architectural paradigm
AB The first in a three-part series in IEEE Annals, this article gives a historical explanation of the endemic confusion surrounding the stored-program concept. The authors suggest the adoption of more precisely defined alternatives to capture specific aspects of the new approach to computing associated with the 1945 work of von Neumann and his collaborators. The second article, "Engineering--The Miracle of the ENIAC: Implementing the Modern Code Paradigm,"' examines the conversion of ENIAC to use the modern code paradigm identified in this article. The third, "Los Alamos Bets on ENIAC: Nuclear Monte Carlo Simulations, 1947-1948,"' examines in detail the first program written in the new paradigm to be executed.
PB IEEE Computer Society, [URL:http://www.computer.org]
SN 1058-6180
LA English
DO 10.1109/MAHC.2013.56
LK http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MAHC.2013.56

RT Journal Article
JF IEEE Annals of the History of Computing
YR 2014
VO 36
IS 1
SP 18
TI Computing in Transition: The Origins of Barcelona's School of Informatics, 1976-1984
A1 Jordi Fornes,
A1 Nestor Herran,
K1 Spain
K1 History
K1 Informatics
K1 Information processing
K1 Data processing
K1 Information systems
K1 Facultad de Informática de Barcelona
K1 history of computing
K1 history of computer science
K1 Spanish computing
K1 Barcelona's School of Informatics
K1 Asociación de Técnicos en Informática
AB This article analyses the establishment of the first computer science university degrees in Catalonia in 1976 in a context of political transition to democracy in Spain. Based on an oral history project and the examination of the school's archives, the authors show that the development of Barcelona' School of Informatics was the result of policymaking a powerful association of informatics technicians that pushed the government and academy for formal studies inside the university.
PB IEEE Computer Society, [URL:http://www.computer.org]
SN 1058-6180
LA English
DO 10.1109/MAHC.2013.43
LK http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MAHC.2013.43

RT Journal Article
JF IEEE Annals of the History of Computing
YR 2014
VO 36
IS 1
SP 30
TI The History of NOMAD: A Fourth Generation Language
K1 Databases
K1 Cascading style sheets
K1 History
K1 Programming
K1 Computer languages
K1 Operating systems
K1 Ramis
K1 history of computing
K1 Nomad
K1 Mathematica
K1 VP/CSS
K1 Focus
K1 IBI
K1 National CSS
AB Nomad, a major 4th generation language, was designed and implemented by National CSS, a principal time-sharing company in the 1970s. The author, one of the team members who developed Nomad, provides the background of the company and describes their use of Ramis as a significant contributor to the company's revenue. After Mathematica's decision to change the price of Ramis, the decision was made to set up "skunk works" to build not just a replacement, but a far better product. The author then describes the Nomad development process, the contributions made by the team members, how the product was named, how it was used, and its history up to the present.
PB IEEE Computer Society, [URL:http://www.computer.org]
SN 1058-6180
LA English
DO 10.1109/MAHC.2014.10
LK http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MAHC.2014.10

RT Journal Article
JF IEEE Annals of the History of Computing
YR 2014
VO 36
IS 1
SP 39
TI Early Commercial Electronic Distribution of Software
K1 Software development
K1 Teletext
K1 Microcomputers
K1 Consumer electronics
K1 Commercialization
K1 Consumer electronics
K1 Marketing and sales
K1 Software documentation
K1 TGN
K1 history of computing
K1 electronic delivery of software
K1 telesoftware
K1 teletext
K1 videotext
K1 NABU
AB Commercial electronic distribution of software (EDS) originated in the second half of the 1970s. By the early 1980s, several North American and European companies were already distributing software using common communications networks. However, it would take two more decades before EDS would become the foremost software delivery model. This article charts the development of the early commercial EDS industry in North America, focusing on cable television-based, direct-to-home services.
PB IEEE Computer Society, [URL:http://www.computer.org]
SN 1058-6180
LA English
DO 10.1109/MAHC.2013.55
LK http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MAHC.2013.55

RT Journal Article
JF IEEE Annals of the History of Computing
YR 2014
VO 36
IS 1
SP 52
TI Messaging in the Early SDC Time-Sharing System
K1 Electronic mail
K1 Time sharing computer systems
K1 Computers
K1 Collaboration
K1 Collaborative work
K1 Joints
K1 Internet
K1 System Development Corporation
K1 time-sharing systems
K1 history of computing
K1 messaging
K1 communications applications
K1 collaborative work
K1 SDC
K1 System Development Corporation
AB In the early 1960s, the time-sharing computer at the System Development Corporation had several messaging commands through which remotely logged in users communicated with one another and with the system operator. These commands were used for system operation and for sending information to remote users. They also permitted collaborative work such as joint debugging of multiauthor programs, an activity now associated with the Internet. These capabilities appear to be the earliest documented implementation of text messaging and were in use before electronic mail was developed for time-sharing systems.
PB IEEE Computer Society, [URL:http://www.computer.org]
SN 1058-6180
LA English
DO 10.1109/MAHC.2013.44
LK http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MAHC.2013.44

RT Journal Article
JF IEEE Annals of the History of Computing
YR 2014
VO 36
IS 1
SP 58
TI Steve Furber [Interviews]
K1 Interviews
K1 Microprocessors
K1 Neural networks
K1 Companies
K1 Printed circuits
K1 SpiNNaker project
K1 history of computing
K1 Steve Furber
K1 neural networks
K1 microarchitecture
K1 processor architecture
K1 Acorn
K1 BBC Micro
K1 ARM processors
AB Steve Furber has made major contributions to both the processor architecture and neural networks fields. He was one of the developers of the Acorn RISC Machine microprocessor, which was the basis for the ARM processors that are now so common in cell phones. He also developed the SpiNNaker system that greatly expanded the power of neural networks. For these contributions, he received the 2013 IEEE Computer Society Pioneer Award. In this interview, David Alan Grier and Furber talk about his early interests, his industry and academic careers, the SpiNNaker project, and developments in the microarchitecture and neural networks fields.
PB IEEE Computer Society, [URL:http://www.computer.org]
SN 1058-6180
LA English
DO 10.1109/MAHC.2014.8
LK http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MAHC.2014.8

RT Journal Article
JF IEEE Annals of the History of Computing
YR 2014
VO 36
IS 1
SP 69
TI Reviews [5 books reviewed]
K1 Book reviews
K1 Software engineering
K1 Programming
K1 Computer applications
K1 computer graphics
K1 history of computing
K1 Peter Naur
K1 software engineering
K1 Donald Knuth
K1 spam
K1 Internet history
K1 computer animation
AB This set of Reviews covers Finn Brunton's Spam: A Shadow History of the Internet (MIT Press, 2013), Tom Sito's Moving Innovation: A History of Computer Animation (MIT Press, 2013), and a set of books by Edgar G. Daylight and published by Lonely Scholar Scientific Books (The Essential Knuth, 2013; Pluralism in Software Engineering: Turing Award Winner Peter Naur Explains, 2011; and The Dawn of Software Engineering: From Turing to Dijkstra, 2012)
PB IEEE Computer Society, [URL:http://www.computer.org]
SN 1058-6180
LA English
DO 10.1109/MAHC.2014.5
LK http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MAHC.2014.5

RT Journal Article
JF IEEE Annals of the History of Computing
YR 2014
VO 36
IS 1
SP 74
TI War Stories of an IBM Salesman, 1974-1981
K1 Marketing and sales
K1 Companies
K1 Computers
K1 data processing
K1 history of computing
K1 IBM
K1 IBM Sales
AB James W. Cortada shares some of the stories from his time as a salesman at IBM, from 1974 to 1981, until he became an instructor at the IBM Sales School. His tales shed new light on IBM, its sales force, its customers, and the mainframe and data processing industries during the 19070s and 1980s.
PB IEEE Computer Society, [URL:http://www.computer.org]
SN 1058-6180
LA English
DO 10.1109/MAHC.2014.12
LK http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MAHC.2014.12

RT Journal Article
JF IEEE Annals of the History of Computing
YR 2014
VO 36
IS 1
SP 79
TI Times Have Changed
K1 History
K1 Computer applications
K1 Software development
K1 operations management
K1 history of computing
K1 IBM
K1 GM Research
K1 applications development
AB Robert L. Patrick provides several brief anecdotes about his long career in applications development and operations management. Patrick reflects on how much (and little) has changed over the last five or so decades.
PB IEEE Computer Society, [URL:http://www.computer.org]
SN 1058-6180
LA English
DO 10.1109/MAHC.2014.11
LK http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MAHC.2014.11

RT Journal Article
JF IEEE Annals of the History of Computing
YR 2014
VO 36
IS 1
SP 82
TI Events and SightingsK1 laptop computing
K1 history of computing
K1 history of technology
K1 SIGCIS
K1 SHOT Conference
K1 Toshiba T1100 Laptop PC
K1 IEEE Milestone Award

AB This Events & Sightings installment covers a range of recent events focusing on the history of computing.
PB IEEE Computer Society, [URL:http://www.computer.org]
SN 1058-6180
LA English
DO 10.1109/MAHC.2014.1
LK http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MAHC.2014.1

RT Journal Article
JF IEEE Annals of the History of Computing
YR 2014
VO 36
IS 1
SP 88
TI Simple Problems
K1 History
K1 Systems engineering and theory
K1 Healthcare.gov
K1 history of computing
K1 political history
K1 Affordable Care Act
AB The history of the multivalent notion of simplicity that underwrites digital metaphors and "solutions" for government is part of the history of computing and political history alike, and it would make an important tool for understanding, deploying, and critiquing simplifying technologies and the rhetoric of simplification today. By investigating how computer systems themselves came to be seen as simple or complex, and how this came to be a judgment of virtue, historians can shed light on the fitness of such digital tools and metaphors and the problems of public policy that are likely to defy such solutions and descriptions.
PB IEEE Computer Society, [URL:http://www.computer.org]
SN 1058-6180
LA English
DO 10.1109/MAHC.2014.7
LK http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MAHC.2014.7

RT Journal Article
JF IEEE Annals of the History of Computing
YR 2014
VO 36
IS 1
SP c2
TI Table of Contents
PB IEEE Computer Society, [URL:http://www.computer.org]
SN 1058-6180
LA English
DO 10.1109/MAHC.2014.9
LK http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MAHC.2014.9

RT Journal Article
JF IEEE Annals of the History of Computing
YR 2014
VO 36
IS 1
SP c3
TI Membership Matters [Advertisement]
PB IEEE Computer Society, [URL:http://www.computer.org]
SN 1058-6180
LA English
DO 10.1109/MAHC.2014.4
LK http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MAHC.2014.4

RT Journal Article
JF IEEE Annals of the History of Computing
YR 2014
VO 36
IS 1
SP c4
TI Rock Stars of Mobile Cloud [Advertisement]
PB IEEE Computer Society, [URL:http://www.computer.org]
SN 1058-6180
LA English
DO 10.1109/MAHC.2014.6
LK http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MAHC.2014.6