RT Journal Article
JF IEEE Annals of the History of Computing
YR 2013
VO 35
IS
SP 56
TI Dummer's Vision of Solid Circuits at the UK Royal Radar Establishment
A1 Mike Green,
K1 Radar equipment
K1 Semiconductor devices
K1 Integrated circuits
K1 Electron tubes
K1 Transistors
K1 Integrated circuit reliability
K1 RRE
K1 Geoffrey W.A. Dummer
K1 semiconductor
K1 solid circuits
K1 microcircuit
K1 British Royal Radar Establishment
AB Geoffrey W.A. Dummer of the British Royal Radar Establishment (RRE) described his idea of semiconductor "solid circuits" at a conference in Washington, DC in 1952. Dummer foresaw the future of microcircuitry, but due to inadequate funding, lack of access to necessary expertise, and skepticism by potential customers, the RRE project to construct the first integrated circuit was doomed to failure.
PB IEEE Computer Society, [URL:http://www.computer.org]
SN 1058-6180
LA English
DO 10.1109/MAHC.2011.64
LK http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MAHC.2011.64

RT Journal Article
JF IEEE Annals of the History of Computing
YR 2013
VO 35
IS
SP 23
TI The Best of Both Worlds? A History of Time-Shared Microcomputers, 1977–1983
A1 Arne Martin Fevolden,
K1 Microcomputers
K1 Companies
K1 Time sharing computer systems
K1 History
K1 Industries
K1 microcomputer and computer industry
K1 history of computing
K1 time-sharing
AB This account of the evolution of time-shared microcomputers, often overlooked members of the microcomputer industry, looks at articles and advertisements that appeared in Byte magazine from 1977 to 1983. The author's quantitative and qualitative analysis reveals that time-shared microcomputers attempted to combine the best aspects of microcomputer and mini-computer/mainframe technologies and, for a time, were a considerable, important part of the microcomputer industry.
PB IEEE Computer Society, [URL:http://www.computer.org]
SN 1058-6180
LA English
DO 10.1109/MAHC.2012.36
LK http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MAHC.2012.36

RT Journal Article
JF IEEE Annals of the History of Computing
YR 2013
VO 35
IS
SP 48
TI The Diamond Ordnance Fuze Laboratory's Photolithographic Approach to Microcircuits
A1 Jay W. Lathrop,
K1 Transistors
K1 US Department of Defense
K1 History
K1 NIST
K1 Diamond-like carbon
K1 Lithography
K1 Electron tubes
K1 National Bureau of Standards
K1 photolithography
K1 history of computing
K1 integrated circuit
K1 printed circuits
K1 microcircuitry
K1 National Bureau of Standards
K1 US Army Diamond Ordnance Fuze Laboratory
K1 proximity fuze
AB From 1952 to 1958, Jay Lathrop worked on a project at the National Bureau of Standards (later the US Army Diamond Ordnance Fuze Laboratory) to develop microminiaturized, transistorized hybrid integrated circuits for radio proximity fuzes. In this article, Lathrop describes his experiences during this project, the development of photolithography, and how photolithography became critical in the first efforts to produce semiconductor ICs.
PB IEEE Computer Society, [URL:http://www.computer.org]
SN 1058-6180
LA English
DO 10.1109/MAHC.2011.83
LK http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MAHC.2011.83

RT Journal Article
JF IEEE Annals of the History of Computing
YR 2013
VO 35
IS
SP 11
TI "Wat For Ever:" Student-Oriented Computing at the University of Waterloo
A1 Scott Campbell,
K1 Computer science education
K1 Education courses
K1 Program processors
K1 Computer languages
K1 Watfor
K1 history of computing
K1 computer science
K1 Canadian computing
K1 Fortran
K1 computer science education
AB In 1965, four undergraduates at the University of Waterloo wrote Watfor, a fast student-oriented Fortran compiler for the school's IBM 7040, largely because the available Fortran compiler was slow and offered weak diagnostic and debugging tools. This article describes the birth and evolution of the Watfor family and explores how it fits into the University of Waterloo's unique-within-Canada cooperative education program and pedagogical philosophy.
PB IEEE Computer Society, [URL:http://www.computer.org]
SN 1058-6180
LA English
DO 10.1109/MAHC.2012.1
LK http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MAHC.2012.1

RT Journal Article
JF IEEE Annals of the History of Computing
YR 2013
VO 35
IS
SP 4
TI Reviews [Four books reviewed]
A1 Andrew Russell,
K1 Book reviews
K1 Cybernetics
K1 History
K1 Computers
K1 Digital environments
K1 Information retrieval
K1 Information resources
K1 History Hunting
K1 history of computing
K1 Eden Medina
K1 cybernetics
K1 Project Cybersy
K1 Chile
K1 Allende
K1 Chilean computing
K1 Swedish computing
K1 John von Neumann
K1 Princeton Institute for Advanced Study
K1 IAS
K1 Turing
K1 James Cortada
K1 Cybernetic Revolutionaries
K1 Computers in Swedish Society
K1 Turing's Cathedral
AB This set of Reviews covers Eden Medina's Cybernetic Revolutionaries (MIT Press, 2011), Per Lundin's Computers in Swedish Society (Springer, 2012), George Dyson's Turing's Cathedral (Pantheon Books, 2012), James W. Cortada's History Hunting (M.E. Sharpe, 2012).
PB IEEE Computer Society, [URL:http://www.computer.org]
SN 1058-6180
LA English
DO 10.1109/MAHC.2013.7
LK http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MAHC.2013.7

RT Journal Article
JF IEEE Annals of the History of Computing
YR 2013
VO 35
IS
SP 35
TI The Australian Educational Computer That Never Was
A1 Arthur Tatnall,
K1 History
K1 Software development
K1 Australia
K1 Microcomputers
K1 Computer science education
K1 Education
K1 Australian computing
K1 history of computing
K1 microcomputers
K1 educational computers
K1 schools
AB Computers are now commonly used in Australian schools, as in most developed countries. In the early 1980s, a multitude of incompatible microcomputers sought to enter the education market, presenting a significant problem in terms of technical support and teacher professional development. To address this, Australia investigated designing and building its own educational computer. This article tells the story of how Australia's educational computer was designed but never actually built.
PB IEEE Computer Society, [URL:http://www.computer.org]
SN 1058-6180
LA English
DO 10.1109/MAHC.2012.16
LK http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MAHC.2012.16

RT Journal Article
JF IEEE Annals of the History of Computing
YR 2013
VO 35
IS
SP 72
TI Rolf Skår
K1 Interviews
K1 Biographies
K1 SAM-2
K1 history of computing
K1 Rolf Skår
K1 Norsk Data
K1 minicomputers
K1 space technology
K1 ESA
K1 NASA
K1 Nord-1
AB Rolf Skår was one of three cofounders of the Norwegian computer company Norsk Data. During his many years with Norsk Data, he worked in various phases of the business including software development and sales and marketing. His final position with the company was as president and CEO. As a renowned business man in Norway, after Norsk Data he has served positions of leadership and innovation in government agencies and business consulting and has represented Norway in the European Space Agency.
PB IEEE Computer Society, [URL:http://www.computer.org]
SN 1058-6180
LA English
DO 10.1109/MAHC.2013.9
LK http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MAHC.2013.9

RT Journal Article
JF IEEE Annals of the History of Computing
YR 2013
VO 35
IS
SP 78
TI Starr Roxanne Hiltz: Pioneer Digital Sociologist
A1 Ramesh Subramanian,
K1 online learning
K1 history of computing
K1 Starr Roxanne Hiltz
K1 Murray Turoff
K1 The Network Nation
K1 Electronic Information Exchange System
K1 EIES
K1 virtual communities
K1 human-computer interaction
K1 social computing
K1 networked communities
AB Starr Roxanne Hiltz, coauthor of the acclaimed 1978 book The Network Nation, was one of the earliest sociologists to study online and virtual communities. Her groundbreaking work with Murray Turoff forecast the future development of virtual communities and their effects on society, politics, and law as well as helped to set a precedence for online learning and group decision-making research.
PB IEEE Computer Society, [URL:http://www.computer.org]
SN 1058-6180
LA English
DO 10.1109/MAHC.2013.11
LK http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MAHC.2013.11

RT Journal Article
JF IEEE Annals of the History of Computing
YR 2013
VO 35
IS
SP 2
TI From the Editor's Desk
A1 Lars Heide,
K1 Diamond Ordnance Fuze Laboratory
K1 history of computing
K1 history of educational computers
K1 microcircuitry
K1 Watfor
K1 University of Waterloo
K1 Australian computing
K1 time-shared microcomputers
K1 Geoffrey W.A. Dummer
K1 semiconductors
K1 Jay W. Lathrop
K1 photolithography
K1 photoetching
K1 integrated circuits
AB This issue features two important aspects of history of computing: computers in education and microcircuitry. Specifically, the issue includes features on the development of Watfor, a fast student-oriented Fortran compiler, at the University of Waterloo; a history of time-shared microcomputers in the early 1980s; a history of educational computers in Australia; Geoffrey W.A. Dummer's semiconductor innovation at the British Royal Radar Establishment in the 1950s; and Jay W. Lathrop's description of developing the photolithographic approach to microcircuits at the US Army Diamond Ordnance Fuze Laboratory.
PB IEEE Computer Society, [URL:http://www.computer.org]
SN 1058-6180
LA English
DO 10.1109/MAHC.2013.5
LK http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MAHC.2013.5

RT Journal Article
JF IEEE Annals of the History of Computing
YR 2013
VO 35
IS
SP 67
TI Events and Sightings
A1 Chigusa Kita,
K1 SHOT Conference
K1 history of computing
K1 Yutaka Ohno
K1 Kyoto Prize
K1 Ivan Sutherland
K1 Computer History Museum
K1 SIGCIS
AB This Events and Sightings department article covers recent activities at the Computer History Museum, an obituary of Yutaka Ohno, an award ceremony for Ivan Sutherland's Kyoto Prize, and SIGCIS events at the 2012 SHOT Conference.
PB IEEE Computer Society, [URL:http://www.computer.org]
SN 1058-6180
LA English
DO 10.1109/MAHC.2013.4
LK http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MAHC.2013.4

RT Journal Article
JF IEEE Annals of the History of Computing
YR 2013
VO 35
IS
SP 88
TI De-Brogramming the History of Computing [Think Piece]
A1 M. Hicks,
K1 History
K1 Computer industry
K1 Programming
K1 queer theory
K1 history of computing
K1 brogrammers
K1 brogramming
K1 women in computing
K1 gender studies
AB In April 2012, the term brogrammer became part of the national consciousness thanks to a frenzy of media scrutiny kicked off by a Mother Jones article. The piece was meant to sound an alarm about the state of the American high tech culture. In this and other such instances, however, the coverage resulted in an unexpected, violent backlash from the male-dominated gaming and IT communities. The author argues that rather than disregarding these occurrences as fringe incidents, such episodes can show us something about mainstream computing culture. Specifically, refocusing attention on the differences among the less powerful, even the relatively anonymous, can help historians of computing add to the texture and variety of the past. Critically, it will also help avoid assumptions about gender in different national and sociotechnical contexts.
PB IEEE Computer Society, [URL:http://www.computer.org]
SN 1058-6180
LA English
DO 10.1109/MAHC.2013.3
LK http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MAHC.2013.3