RT Journal Article
JF IEEE Annals of the History of Computing
YR 2011
VO 33
IS
SP 2
TI From the Editor's Desk
A1 Jeffrey R. Yost,
K1 History of computing
K1 computer users
K1 user innovation
AB <p>This issue grew out of an invitation workshop of the same title, "New Voices, New Topics (in the History of Computing and Information)" that Bill Aspray and Jeffrey Yost co-organized and co-ran at the University of Texas in 2010. The goal was to bring new authors to the Annals and publish important scholarship on topics that have been ignored or underrepresented in the literature. (The contents of the issue are discussed in our guest editors' introduction.) Among other attributes, this issue is a major contribution to the study of a diverse set of computer users. The Annals should continue to seek out and publish the best historical scholarship on users and user innovation, gaining further insight and nuance into how computing has changed the world.</p>
PB IEEE Computer Society, [URL:http://www.computer.org]
SN 1058-6180
LA English
DO 10.1109/MAHC.2011.39
LK http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MAHC.2011.39

RT Journal Article
JF IEEE Annals of the History of Computing
YR 2011
VO 33
IS
SP 4
TI New Voices, New Topics
A1 William Aspray,
A1 Jeffrey R. Yost,
K1 History of computing
K1 evidence-based medicine
K1 hearing aids
K1 electronic miniaturization
K1 transistors
K1 printed circuits
K1 digital slot machines
K1 casinos
K1 gambling
K1 digital technology
K1 Apple Computer
K1 Taiwan
K1 microhistory
K1 Kaypro II
K1 archival documentation
AB <p>Guest Editors William Aspray and Jeffrey R. Yost developed a workshop to focus on new topics and new authors, specifically designed to encourage talented scholars conducting cutting-edge research on largely unstudied, but highly significant topics of computer history who had not previously published an article in the <it>Annals</it>. The articles in this special issue "New Voices, New Topics" are the result of that workshop, held at the University of Texas at Austin, in April 2010. Attention to the users and uses of computers are a common focus of all these articles, and most address the theme of user-driven innovation. The manuscripts by Honghong Tinn and Patricia Galloway concentrate on tinkerers, an important kind of user and builder of early personal computing systems. Social groups, networks, and contexts also figure prominently in all the articles. Explicit discussion of sources yielded numerous historiographical contributions, even though only one of the articles is framed as such (Galloway). Finally, the vastly understudied topic of embedded computing technology figures meaningfully in three of the articles (by Joseph November, Cristina Turdean, and Mara Mills) and George Royer's Think Piece on the videogame console industry.</p>
PB IEEE Computer Society, [URL:http://www.computer.org]
SN 1058-6180
LA English
DO 10.1109/MAHC.2011.44
LK http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MAHC.2011.44

RT Journal Article
JF IEEE Annals of the History of Computing
YR 2011
VO 33
IS
SP 60
TI Personal Computers, Microhistory, and Shared Authority: Documenting the Inventor&#x2013;Early Adopter Dialectic
A1 Patricia Galloway,
K1 Personal computers
K1 history of computing
K1 hardware
K1 people
K1 software
K1 microcomputers
K1 Kaypro II
K1 digital archiving
AB <p>Documenting the history of computers is complex because it requires not only documents but hardware, software, people, memories, and practice, together with an understanding of the information ecology that they constitute. An example from the author's own history with personal computers explores how these kinds of evidence are generated and how they might be gathered into archives for historical research.</p>
PB IEEE Computer Society, [URL:http://www.computer.org]
SN 1058-6180
LA English
DO 10.1109/MAHC.2011.45
LK http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MAHC.2011.45

RT Journal Article
JF IEEE Annals of the History of Computing
YR 2011
VO 33
IS
SP 75
TI From DIY Computers to Illegal Copies: The Controversy over Tinkering with Microcomputers in Taiwan, 1980&#x2013;1984
A1 Honghong Tinn,
K1 History of computing
K1 tinkering
K1 microcomputers
K1 Apple II
K1 Apple Computer
K1 compatibles
K1 software
K1 Taiwan
AB <p>In the early 1980s, tinkerers assembling and modifying microcomputers opened up this black-boxed technology and helped popularize microcomputers in Taiwan. Such activities, however, prompted copyright suits between Apple Computer and Taiwanese computer manufacturers. This article delineates the debate around those suits and examines how this practice shaped new social meanings of microcomputers in Taiwan.</p>
PB IEEE Computer Society, [URL:http://www.computer.org]
SN 1058-6180
LA English
DO 10.1109/MAHC.2011.38
LK http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MAHC.2011.38

RT Journal Article
JF IEEE Annals of the History of Computing
YR 2011
VO 33
IS
SP 46
TI Casinos and the Digitization of the Slot Machine, 1950&#x2013;1989
A1 Cristina Turdean,
K1 History of computing
K1 gambling technology
K1 slot machines
K1 casinos
K1 computer applications
K1 organizational impact of computers
K1 computing and information systems management
AB <p>The last 30 years marked the unprecedented expansion of the casino industry and advances in gambling technology, particularly the slot machine. The development of the digital slot machine demonstrates the ways in which the culture of the casino floor and the specifics of the mechanical machine shaped the evolution of its digital successor.</p>
PB IEEE Computer Society, [URL:http://www.computer.org]
SN 1058-6180
LA English
DO 10.1109/MAHC.2011.33
LK http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MAHC.2011.33

RT Journal Article
JF IEEE Annals of the History of Computing
YR 2011
VO 33
IS
SP 24
TI Hearing Aids and the History of Electronics Miniaturization
A1 Mara Mills,
K1 history of computing
K1 hearing aids
K1 microelectronics
K1 disability studies
K1 assistive technologies
K1 history of technology
K1 history of computing hardware
AB <p>Electrical hearing aids were the principal site for component miniaturization and compact assembly before World War II. After the war, hearing aid users became the first consumer market for printed circuits, transistors, and integrated circuits. Due to the stigmatization of hearing loss, users generally demanded small or invisible devices. In addition to being early adopters, deaf and hard of hearing people were often the inventors, retailers, and manufacturers of miniaturized electronics.</p>
PB IEEE Computer Society, [URL:http://www.computer.org]
SN 1058-6180
LA English
DO 10.1109/MAHC.2011.43
LK http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MAHC.2011.43

RT Journal Article
JF IEEE Annals of the History of Computing
YR 2011
VO 33
IS
SP 9
TI Early Biomedical Computing and the Roots of Evidence-Based Medicine
A1 Joseph A. November,
K1 history of computing
K1 evidence-based medicine
K1 software
K1 public policy issues
K1 computers and society
K1 automation
K1 organizational
K1 healthcare
AB <p>The heavily computerized evidence-based medicine (EBM) approach to diagnosis and care aims to reorient medical practice toward adhering to standards and protocols generated by mass data analysis. By clarifying the connections between the 1960s National Institutes of Health effort to computerize medicine and the recent proliferation of EBM, this article illuminates the intellectual and institutional challenges of introducing information technology to medicine.</p>
PB IEEE Computer Society, [URL:http://www.computer.org]
SN 1058-6180
LA English
DO 10.1109/MAHC.2011.35
LK http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MAHC.2011.35

RT Journal Article
JF IEEE Annals of the History of Computing
YR 2011
VO 33
IS
SP 89
TI The Book Computer Structures: Thoughts After 40 Years
A1 Gordon Bell,
A1 Daniel P. Siewiorek,
K1 history of computing
K1 Carnegie Mellon University
K1 PMS
K1 ISP
K1 Bell's law
K1 the computer artifact classification
K1 Computer Structures
K1 Computer History Museum
AB <p>Gordon Bell and Allen Newell authored <it>Computer Structures: Readings and Examples</it> in 1971, and with them, Daniel Siewiorek help create the follow-up book <it>Computer Structures: Principles and Examples</it> in 1982. In this Anecdotes article, authors Bell and Siewiorek share their recollections from writing these foundational technical books. The indirect effects of producing these texts had lasting imprints on subsequent computers at Carnegie Mellon University, Digital Equipment's PDP-11 and VAX computers, Bell's law describing computer classes, and even the computer artifact classification at the Computer History Museum.</p>
PB IEEE Computer Society, [URL:http://www.computer.org]
SN 1058-6180
LA English
DO 10.1109/MAHC.2011.47
LK http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MAHC.2011.47

RT Journal Article
JF IEEE Annals of the History of Computing
YR 2011
VO 33
IS
SP 96
TI William Alfred Higinbotham: Scientist, Activist, and Computer Game Pioneer
A1 Kristen J. Nyitray,
K1 history of computing
K1 William Alfred Higinbotham
K1 Tennis for Two
K1 Brookhaven National Laboratory
K1 Manhattan Project
K1 Federation of American Scientists
AB <p>William Alfred Higinbotham designed <it>Tennis for Two</it>, the first computer game to display motion and allow interactive control with handheld controllers, to lure visitors over to the display of the instrumentation division for attendees at a Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL)visitors' day in 1958. For Higinbotham, this was just an isolated incident in a distinguished career as a physicist and electronics expert. Recruited from MIT in 1945 to work on the Manhattan Project, he developed the timing circuits for the first atomic bomb and witnessed the test detonation in Alamogordo, New Mexico. The following year, he helped found the Federation of Atomic (later, American) Scientists. A passionate advocate of nuclear nonproliferation, he worked tirelessly to educate government officials and the public about adapting atomic energy for peaceful purposes and implementing safeguards on weapons of mass destruction.</p>
PB IEEE Computer Society, [URL:http://www.computer.org]
SN 1058-6180
LA English
DO 10.1109/MAHC.2011.48
LK http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MAHC.2011.48

RT Journal Article
JF IEEE Annals of the History of Computing
YR 2011
VO 33
IS
SP 102
TI Reviews
K1 <p>Nathan Ensmenger
K1 The Computer Boys Take Over: Computers
K1 Programemrs
K1 a nd the Politics of Technical Expertise
K1 Thomas J. Misa
K1 Gender Codes: Why Women Are Leaving Computing</p>
AB <p>Jeffrey R. Yost and Atsusshi Akera review the books The Computer Boys Take Over: Computers, Programmers, and the Politics of Technical Expertise by Nathan Ensmenger and Gender Codes: Why Women Are Leaving Computing by Thomas J. Misa.</p>
PB IEEE Computer Society, [URL:http://www.computer.org]
SN 1058-6180
LA English
DO 10.1109/MAHC.2011.46
LK http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MAHC.2011.46

RT Journal Article
JF IEEE Annals of the History of Computing
YR 2011
VO 33
IS
SP 105
TI Greece
A1 Michael Geselowitz,
K1 history of computing
K1 Greece
K1 tourism
K1 Antikythera Mechanism
K1 Archimedes
K1 Hypatia of Alexandria
K1 National Archaeology Museum in Athens
K1 Hellenic Telecommunications Organization (OTE) Museum of Telecommunications
AB <p>Classical Greece and the subsequent Greek-based Hellenistic culture of the Mediterranean region are well known as the birthplaces of what was to become modern mathematics. Many of their developments are still utilized today in computer science. What is less known to the general public is that the Greeks were computer engineering pioneers as well. Thus, for the computer professional or computer historian on a busman's holiday, there is even more to Greece than the Parthenon and relaxing beaches. In this column, Department Editor Michael N. Geselowitz tours the history and historical sites related to the history of computing in beautiful Greece.</p>
PB IEEE Computer Society, [URL:http://www.computer.org]
SN 1058-6180
LA English
DO 10.1109/MAHC.2011.42
LK http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MAHC.2011.42

RT Journal Article
JF IEEE Annals of the History of Computing
YR 2011
VO 33
IS
SP 106
TI Events and Sightings
A1 Chigusa Kita,
K1 history of computing
K1 Computer History Museum
K1 Revolution exhibit
K1 IPSJ
K1 Akara 2010
K1 Ichiyo Shimizu
K1 Ken Olsen
K1 Sir Maurice Wilkes
AB <p>This Events &#x0026; Sightings installment covers the Computer History Museum grand opening of its history of computing exhibit, "Revolution: The First 2,000 Years of Computing." Revolution covers many of the most important milestones in computing from the Antikythera Mechanism to the iPhone. The exhibit is 25,000 square feet in area and features more than 1,200 computing artifacts, 2,000 graphic and text panels, and more than 100 mini-movies. The Events &#x0026; Sightings also describes the Information Processing Society of Japan's 50th anniversary celebration and Third Information Processing Technology Heritage Certification Ceremony as well include obituaries for Sir Maurice Wilkes and Ken Olsen.</p>
PB IEEE Computer Society, [URL:http://www.computer.org]
SN 1058-6180
LA English
DO 10.1109/MAHC.2011.36
LK http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MAHC.2011.36

RT Journal Article
JF IEEE Annals of the History of Computing
YR 2011
VO 33
IS
SP 111
TI Familiar Concepts, Unfamiliar Territory
A1 George Royer,
K1 History of computing
K1 videogame
K1 Atari
K1 videogame consoles
K1 software
AB <p>The history of videogames, from a computing history and business history standpoint, is not yet comprehensively documented. Likewise, historians have not fully realized the utility of the videogame industry as a counterpoint to the analysis of the personal computing industry. Although an exhaustive, definitive history of the videogame industry has yet to be written, there is growing interest in the documentation and study of videogames. Much of the available literature on videogames focuses heavily on the game as an object and ignores the underlying technologies and business practices that facilitated the development, marketing, and distribution of the videogame microcomputers, or consoles. The author suggests that an interrogation of the early videogame console industry can provide computer historians with a lens though which to scrutinize issues salient to the history of the PC industry.</p>
PB IEEE Computer Society, [URL:http://www.computer.org]
SN 1058-6180
LA English
DO 10.1109/MAHC.2011.37
LK http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MAHC.2011.37