RT Journal Article
JF IEEE Annals of the History of Computing
YR 1997
VO 19
IS
SP 3
TI About This Issue
A1 Michael R. Williams,
K1
PB IEEE Computer Society, [URL:http://www.computer.org]
SN 1058-6180
LA English
DO 10.1109/MAHC.1997.10007
LK http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MAHC.1997.10007

RT Journal Article
JF IEEE Annals of the History of Computing
YR 1997
VO 19
IS
SP 4
TI The Intel 4004 Microprocessor: What Constituted Invention?
A1 William Aspray,
K1
AB <p><it>This paper investigates the context for the development of one of the earliest microprocessors, the Intel 4004. It considers the contributions Intel employees, most notably Marcian E. "Ted" Hoff, Jr., and Federico Faggin, made and contributions other people made to this development who are not generally known, most notably Tadashi Sasaki and Masatoshi Shima. The paper represents a case study of how corporate and national cultures affect technological development and of the many aspects of invention, including conceptualization, logical design, engineering, fabrication, capitalization, and marketing.</it></p>
PB IEEE Computer Society, [URL:http://www.computer.org]
SN 1058-6180
LA English
DO 10.1109/85.601727
LK http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/85.601727

RT Journal Article
JF IEEE Annals of the History of Computing
YR 1997
VO 19
IS
SP 16
TI Douglas Carl Engelbart: Developing the Underlying Concepts for Contemporary Computing
A1 Susan B. Barnes,
K1
AB <p><it>Currently, the World Wide Web is the hottest topic in contemporary computing and popular culture. The Web's meteoric rise is difficult to escape notice. Web stories are plastered in the popular press, and advertisements now include cryptic strings of letters starting with http://. But what is missing from the current commercial descriptions of the Web is a discussion about the 30-year history of research and development that created the underlying technologies on which the Web is based. Much of this foundation was laid in the 1960s by Douglas Carl Engelbart. In 1968, at the ACM/IEEE-CS Fall Joint Computer Conference, Engelbart demonstrated his concept of "interactive computing" to a group of computer scientists, and this is now considered a seminal event in the history of computing. The technologies Engelbart originally presented included: windowed screen design, the user interface, hypertextual linking of documents, the mouse, collaborative computing, and multimedia. His pioneering work in the 1960s influenced future generations of computer designers and developers. Almost 30 years after Engelbart's initial demonstration, many of his pioneering visions are now commonly found in personal computers and the developing World Wide Web.</it></p>
PB IEEE Computer Society, [URL:http://www.computer.org]
SN 1058-6180
LA English
DO 10.1109/85.601730
LK http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/85.601730

RT Journal Article
JF IEEE Annals of the History of Computing
YR 1997
VO 19
IS
SP 27
TI Economic Preconditions That Made Possible Application of Commercial Computing in the United States
A1 James W. Cortada,
K1
AB <p><it>This article argues that it would have become very difficult for computers to have come into being, and subsequently be adopted by businesses, if the U.S. economy were not large and healthy. The author demonstrates that there were characteristics of the economy that facilitated the development and use of computers in the United States, beginning in the 1950s and continuing down to the present.</it></p>
PB IEEE Computer Society, [URL:http://www.computer.org]
SN 1058-6180
LA English
DO 10.1109/85.601734
LK http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/85.601734

RT Journal Article
JF IEEE Annals of the History of Computing
YR 1997
VO 19
IS
SP 41
TI Mathematics, Technology, and Trust: Formal Verification, Computer Security, and the U.S. Military
A1 Donald Mackenzie,
A1 Garrel Pottinger,
K1
AB <p><it>A distinctive concern in the U.S. military for computer security dates from the emergence of time-sharing systems in the 1960s. This paper traces the subsequent development of the idea of a "security kernel" and of the mathematical modeling of security, focusing in particular on the paradigmatic Bell-LaPadula model. The paper examines the connections between computer security and formal, deductive verification of the properties of computer systems. It goes on to discuss differences between the cultures of communications security and computer security, the bureaucratic turf war over security, and the emergence and impact of the Department of Defense's Trusted Computer System Evaluation Criteria (the so-called Orange Book), which effectively took its final form in 1983. The paper ends by outlining the fragmentation of computer security since the Orange Book was written.</it></p>
PB IEEE Computer Society, [URL:http://www.computer.org]
SN 1058-6180
LA English
DO 10.1109/85.601735
LK http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/85.601735

RT Journal Article
JF IEEE Annals of the History of Computing
YR 1997
VO 19
IS
SP 60
TI Early Interactions Between the Life Insurance and Computer Industries: The Prudential's Edmund C. Berkeley
A1 Joanne Yates,
K1
AB <p><it>This paper studies how a representative of one commercial user industry, life insurance, interacted with key players in the newly forming computer industry after World War II but before any computers were sold for commercial purposes. In particular, it shows how Prudential's early computer expert and proselytizer, Edmund Callis Berkeley, viewed computer technology and its potential uses in life insurance, as well as the ways in which he influenced its development. Immediately after the war, Berkeley set out to educate his superiors at Prudential and the life insurance industry as a whole about the potential uses of computers for insurance; at the same time, he communicated that industry's needs, especially in the areas of rapid input-output and verification, to potential computer vendors. His internal efforts culminated in the contract Prudential signed for a Univac computer. Although the contract was ultimately broken, Berkeley's efforts appear to have influenced J. Presper Eckert, Jr., and John Mauchly in their development of the technology. Berkeley's activities in the 1940s reveal that interaction between vendors and representatives of potential commercial users was earlier and more intense than historical accounts of computing generally recognize and that users may exert a powerful influence on the development of technology.</it></p>
PB IEEE Computer Society, [URL:http://www.computer.org]
SN 1058-6180
LA English
DO 10.1109/85.601736
LK http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/85.601736

RT Journal Article
JF IEEE Annals of the History of Computing
YR 1997
VO 19
IS
SP 74
TI Happenings
A1 Geoffrey Bowker,
K1
AB <p><it>The Happenings department reports on past, present, and future events of interest to the history of computing. These events include conferences, appropriate sessions from meetings, exhibits, projects, awards, publications, collections, general memorabilia, and important dates in the history of computing.</it></p><p><it>Contributions to the department are encouraged and should consist of a description or report of the event, highlighting its specific relevance.</it></p>
PB IEEE Computer Society, [URL:http://www.computer.org]
SN 1058-6180
LA English
DO 10.1109/MAHC.1997.10006
LK http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MAHC.1997.10006

RT Journal Article
JF IEEE Annals of the History of Computing
YR 1997
VO 19
IS
SP 78
TI Review
A1 Peggy Kidwell,
K1
AB <p><it>The Reviews Department includes reviews of publications, films, audio and video tapes, and exhibits relating to the history of computing. Full-length studies of technical, economic, business, and institutional aspects or other works of interest to</it> Annals <it>readers are briefly noted, with appropriate bibliographic information.</it></p><p><it>Colleagues are encouraged to recommend works they wish to review and to suggest titles to the Reviews Editor.</it></p>
PB IEEE Computer Society, [URL:http://www.computer.org]
SN 1058-6180
LA English
DO 10.1109/MAHC.1997.601738
LK http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MAHC.1997.601738