RT Journal Article
JF IEEE Annals of the History of Computing
YR 2014
VO 36
IS 3
SP 2
TI From the Editor's Desk
A1 David Walden,
A1 Nathan Ensmenger, K1 Hindustan Computers Limited
K1 history of computing
K1 Martin Campbell-Kelly
K1 Donald Knuth
K1 Monte Carlo simulations
K1 ENIAC
K1 Klara von Neumann
K1 John von Neumann
K1 color matching
K1 COMIC
K1 computer graphics
K1 patent prior art
K1 microcomputers

AB This issue includes a special Comments, Queries, and Debates department by Martin Campbell-Kelly in which he explores an ongoing discussion regarding breadth versus depth in the history of computing and describes an exchange on the topic with Donald Knuth. This issue also features several articles that discuss unanticipated but ultimately influential uses of electronic computers. Specifically, Thomas Haigh, Mark Priestley, and Crispin Rope explore the development of the first computer-based implementation of the Monte Carlo algorithm; David Hemmendinger explores the development of computational techniques for solving the problem of color matching; and Eduardo Perez Molina uses patent records from the 1940s and 1950s to provide context for the revolution in computer graphics that began in the 1960s. Lastly, Ramesh Subramanian's article "Technology Policy and National Identity: The Microcomputer Comes to India" gives a history of an indigenous microcomputer produced by the Hindustan Computers Limited in the late 1970s.
PB IEEE Computer Society, [URL:http://www.computer.org]
SN 1058-6180
LA English
DO 10.1109/MAHC.2014.37
LK http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MAHC.2014.37

RT Journal Article
JF IEEE Annals of the History of Computing
YR 2014
VO 36
IS 3
SP 4
TI COMIC: An Analog Computer in the Colorant Industry
K1 Color
K1 Mathematical model
K1 Analog computers
K1 Image color analysis
K1 Industries
K1 Davidson & Hemmendinger
K1 history of computing
K1 analog computer
K1 computer color matching
K1 colorant industry
K1 COMIC
AB In 1958, Davidson & Hemmendinger, a small company that made color measurements and standards, introduced the COMIC (Colorant MIxture Computer), the first practical computer for determining a mixture of dyes or paints to match a given sample. An analog computer that solved a set of simultaneous equations, it was replaced within a decade by digital computer programs; nonetheless, it helped bring automation to the colorant industry. This short history--which describes the COMIC and its effect on the colorant industry, and identifies some of its successors--gives context to the COMIC while adding to historians' knowledge of technology and computing.
PB IEEE Computer Society, [URL:http://www.computer.org]
SN 1058-6180
LA English
DO 10.1109/MAHC.2014.34
LK http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MAHC.2014.34

RT Journal Article
JF IEEE Annals of the History of Computing
YR 2014
VO 36
IS 3
SP 19
TI Technology Policy and National Identity: The Microcomputer Comes to India
K1 Government
K1 Microcomputers
K1 India
K1 Consumer electronics
K1 Policies
K1 Legal aspects
K1 technology policy
K1 history of computing
K1 Indian computing history
K1 personal computer
K1 Hindustan Computers Ltd.
AB This article looks at India's IT industry history in the 1970s and early 1980s by focusing on the development of an indigenous microcomputer by the Hindustan Computers Limited (HCL). After gaining independence in 1947, the Indian government embarked on a program that focused on economic development, albeit with a socialist theme and central planning. Indigenization was the prime objective. Some industries were more favored than others, and electronics and computers were initially neglected and hobbled by restrictive policies. Foreign companies were pressured to reduce foreign equity. By the late-1970s, government efforts to induce IBM to transfer equity had failed. The government responded by forcing IBM to leave India and by relaxing policies and permitting local companies to import parts and components to develop computers locally. As a result, many private companies entered the computer sector. HCL was born in 1976 and released its first commercial system in 1978.
PB IEEE Computer Society, [URL:http://www.computer.org]
SN 1058-6180
LA English
DO 10.1109/MAHC.2014.46
LK http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MAHC.2014.46

RT Journal Article
JF IEEE Annals of the History of Computing
YR 2014
VO 36
IS 3
SP 30
TI The Technological Roots of Computer Graphics
K1 Patents
K1 Computer graphics
K1 TV
K1 History
K1 Computers
K1 Art
K1 patents
K1 history of computing
K1 history of technology
K1 computer graphics
AB Numerous, seemingly unrelated technologies eventually culminated in what we know today as the field of computer graphics (CG). The article focuses on prior art documents cited in CG patent applications to identify the technology at the origin, the problems encountered, and that solutions proposed in the 1940s and 1950s that led to the generation of images with computers in the early 1960s. The analysis is threefold: the aggregation of patent classification supplied information about the technologies at the origin of CG, the firms behind these patents provided an idea about the players, and the analysis of individual publications provided information about the problems they addressed and the solutions that were proposed. This approach enriches previous works on CG history, which are usually based on the pioneers' views or on the personal experiences of author(s). The key finding made in this prior art analysis reveals that, in addition to computing and television, CG has deep roots in radar-related technologies and aircraft instrumentation.
PB IEEE Computer Society, [URL:http://www.computer.org]
SN 1058-6180
LA English
DO 10.1109/MAHC.2014.47
LK http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MAHC.2014.47

RT Journal Article
JF IEEE Annals of the History of Computing
YR 2014
VO 36
IS 3
SP 42
TI Los Alamos Bets on ENIAC: Nuclear Monte Carlo Simulations, 1947-1948
A1 Thomas Haigh,
A1 Mark Priestley,
A1 Crispin Rope,
K1 Computers
K1 History
K1 Monte Carlo methods
K1 Neutrons
K1 Weapons
K1 Programming
K1 Monte Carlo simulations
K1 history of computing
K1 ENIAC
K1 John von Neumann
K1 Klara von Neumann
K1 Nick Metropolis
K1 stored program concept
K1 modern code paradigm
K1 Los Alamos National Laboratory
AB In April 1948 a team including John and Klara von Neumann and Nick Metropolis ran the first of a series of calculations on ENIAC. These were not only the first computerized Monte Carlo simulations, but also the first code written in the modern paradigm, usually associated with the "stored program concept," ever to be executed. This article--the third in a three-part series published in Annals--reconstructs the planning, design, code, and operation of these programs from extensive archival records.
PB IEEE Computer Society, [URL:http://www.computer.org]
SN 1058-6180
LA English
DO 10.1109/MAHC.2014.40
LK http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MAHC.2014.40

RT Journal Article
JF IEEE Annals of the History of Computing
YR 2014
VO 36
IS 3
SP 64
TI Deborah Estrin
K1 Interviews
K1 Mobile communication
K1 Robot sensing systems
K1 Computer science
K1 Internet
K1 Biographies
K1 participatory sensing
K1 history of computing
K1 Deborah Estrin
K1 CENS
K1 Open mHealth
K1 applied research
K1 mobile health
AB Deborah Estrin is a computer scientist who has made major technical contributions to internetworking, multicast routing, embedded sensing and computing, wireless sensor networks, and mobile and electronic health. She has been a professor her entire career, has served on countless panels and advisory boards, and continues to mentor students in electrical engineering and computer science. She is one of the most accomplished and visionary people in computing today and also the first professor hired at the Cornell NYC Tech campus. In 2012, Wired magazine named her one of the "50 People Who Will Change the World."
PB IEEE Computer Society, [URL:http://www.computer.org]
SN 1058-6180
LA English
DO 10.1109/MAHC.2014.35
LK http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MAHC.2014.35

RT Journal Article
JF IEEE Annals of the History of Computing
YR 2014
VO 36
IS 3
SP 70
TI Michael Sean Mahoney (1939-2008)
K1 Biographies
K1 Obituaries
K1 Engineering profession
K1 Computer science
K1 Princeton University
K1 history of computing
K1 historiography
K1 history of science
K1 history of technology
K1 history of mathematics
K1 Michael Sean Mahoney
AB From 1988, when he published his first paper in the history of computing, until his death in 2008, Michael Sean Mahoney was one of the leading international figures in the history of computing. This biography focuses on Mahoney's contributions to computing history and how he came to study this topic. His research in other areas of the history of science and technology is covered here only to the extent that it helps to explain the context for his work in computer history.
PB IEEE Computer Society, [URL:http://www.computer.org]
SN 1058-6180
LA English
DO 10.1109/MAHC.2014.41
LK http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MAHC.2014.41

RT Journal Article
JF IEEE Annals of the History of Computing
YR 2014
VO 36
IS 3
SP 80
TI What Is a Computer? An Answer from the Past
K1 History
K1 Computers
K1 Armand Adams
K1 history of computing
K1 J. Presper Eckert
K1 John Mauchly
K1 EDVAC II
K1 stored-program computers
K1 EMCC
AB The definition of the computer has changed over time as it has increased in capacity and capability. This articles contains one of the earliest definitions by J. Presper Eckert, one of the fathers of the computer field. The purpose of this contribution to the Annals is to record in the published literature a press release on the EDVAC II effort from March 1947 when no stored-program computers existed anywhere.
PB IEEE Computer Society, [URL:http://www.computer.org]
SN 1058-6180
LA English
DO 10.1109/MAHC.2014.48
LK http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MAHC.2014.48

RT Journal Article
JF IEEE Annals of the History of Computing
YR 2014
VO 36
IS 3
SP 85
TI Events and SightingsK1 IT Pro Masterminds
K1 history of computing
K1 Smithsonian Institution
K1 technology archives
K1 Vint Cerf
K1 TCP/IP
K1 Bob Kahn
K1 Internet protocols
K1 Web @ 25
K1 Computing Now

AB This Events & Sightings installment covers a range of recent events focusing on the history of computing.
PB IEEE Computer Society, [URL:http://www.computer.org]
SN 1058-6180
LA English
DO 10.1109/MAHC.2014.36
LK http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MAHC.2014.36

RT Journal Article
JF IEEE Annals of the History of Computing
YR 2014
VO 36
IS 3
SP 90
TI Reviews [3 books reviewed]
K1 Book reviews
K1 History
K1 TV
K1 Computers
K1 Computer applications
K1 Human factors
K1 computers on TV
K1 history of computing
K1 IBM history
K1 Hong Kong
K1 Argonne National Laboratory
K1 history of computational science
AB The following three books are reviewed: The Computer Age in Hong Kon: Dynamic Past, Hesitant Present, What Next? (O, A.; 2013); Hybrid Zone: Computers and Science at Argonne National Laboratory, 1946-1992; 2013); and 2014 Mad Men (AMC), Silicon Valley (HBO). and Halt and Catch Fire (AMC); Television Episode reviews; 2014).
PB IEEE Computer Society, [URL:http://www.computer.org]
SN 1058-6180
LA English
DO 10.1109/MAHC.2014.42
LK http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MAHC.2014.42

RT Journal Article
JF IEEE Annals of the History of Computing
YR 2014
VO 36
IS 3
SP 94
TI Are Historians Failing to Tell the Real Story about the History of Computing?
K1 History
K1 Computer industry
K1 cryptography
K1 history of computing
K1 National Security Agency
K1 cryptologic history
K1 vocorder
K1 SIGSALY
K1 SIGABA
AB Are historians of computing failing by not incorporating the work of agencies like the NSA? If so, how would we address that deficiency, given the culture of secrecy surrounding cryptography and the unlikelihood that critical documents will be declassified in a reasonable time?
PB IEEE Computer Society, [URL:http://www.computer.org]
SN 1058-6180
LA English
DO 10.1109/MAHC.2014.33
LK http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MAHC.2014.33

RT Journal Article
JF IEEE Annals of the History of Computing
YR 2014
VO 36
IS 3
SP 96
TI Knuth and the Spectrum of History
K1 History
K1 Computers
K1 Computer industry
K1 Science - general
K1 Donald Knuth
K1 history of computing
K1 history of science
K1 history of technology
K1 Annals
K1 Martin Campbell-Kelly
AB In this brief commentary, Martin Campbell-Kelly explores an ongoing discussion regarding breadth versus depth in the history of computing specifically and the history of science more generally. Campbell-Kelly describes an exchange on the topic with Donald Knuth and weighs both sides of what he refers to as an "internalist-externalist debate."
PB IEEE Computer Society, [URL:http://www.computer.org]
SN 1058-6180
LA English
DO 10.1109/MAHC.2014.39
LK http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MAHC.2014.39

RT Journal Article
JF IEEE Annals of the History of Computing
YR 2014
VO 36
IS 3
SP c1
TI Front Cover
PB IEEE Computer Society, [URL:http://www.computer.org]
SN 1058-6180
LA English
DO 10.1109/MAHC.2014.38
LK http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MAHC.2014.38

RT Journal Article
JF IEEE Annals of the History of Computing
YR 2014
VO 36
IS 3
SP c2
TI Table of Contents
PB IEEE Computer Society, [URL:http://www.computer.org]
SN 1058-6180
LA English
DO 10.1109/MAHC.2014.45
LK http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MAHC.2014.45

RT Journal Article
JF IEEE Annals of the History of Computing
YR 2014
VO 36
IS 3
SP c3
TI Rock Stars of Cybersecurity House Advertisement
PB IEEE Computer Society, [URL:http://www.computer.org]
SN 1058-6180
LA English
DO 10.1109/MAHC.2014.43
LK http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MAHC.2014.43

RT Journal Article
JF IEEE Annals of the History of Computing
YR 2014
VO 36
IS 3
SP c4
TI Seeking Editor in Chief
AB The IEEE Computer Society seeks applicants for the position of editor in chief, serving a two-year term starting 1 january 2015. Prospective candidates are asked to provide (as PDF files), by 31 August 2014, a complete curriculum vitae, a brief plan for the publication's future, and a letter of support from their institution or employer. Applicants will be notified of the search results shortly after the November 2014 CS Board of Governors meeting. Qualifications and Requirements: Candidates for any IEEE Computer Society editor in chief position should possess a good understanding of industry, academic, and government aspects of the specific publication's field. In addition, candidates must demonstrate the managerial skills necessary to process manuscripts through the editorial cycle in a timely fashion. An editor in chief must be able to attract respected experts to his or her editorial board. Applicants should be able to show involvement in the computer history community, and must have clear employer support. For more information about the position or the search process or to submit application materials, please contact: Bonnie Wylie at b.wylie®computer.org.
PB IEEE Computer Society, [URL:http://www.computer.org]
SN 1058-6180
LA English
DO 10.1109/MAHC.2014.44
LK http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MAHC.2014.44